Unconference

“An unconference is a participant-driven meeting. The term “unconference” has been applied, or self-applied, to a wide range of gatherings that try to avoid one or more aspects of a conventional conference, such as fees, sponsored presentations, and top-down organization” (Wikipedia, 2018).
The Unconference

Heutagogy: is learning where the focus is learner centred with a self-determined learning approach.

Collaborative Interdisciplinary Unconference 2018

Calling all Educators – Make a difference in ICU Education: A crowd-source organised conference aimed at developing the field of interprofessional critical care education, training, teamwork and patient-centred care with the ANZ Clinical Educators’ Network in collaboration with ANZICS, ACCCN, CICM(ANZ). Physically located in Adelaide, SA.

Follow #unconfed and Symplur conference #unconfed hashtag for social media discussion.

Resources

Budd, A., Dinkel, H., Corpas, M., Fuller, J. C., Rubinat, L., Devos, D. P., … & Sharan, M. (2015). Ten simple rules for organizing an unconference. PLoS Computational Biology, 11(1), e1003905.

Carpenter, J. P., & Linton, J. N. (2018). Educators’ perspectives on the impact of Edcamp unconference professional learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 73, 56-69.

Nursing Education Network. (2016). Heutagogy and Nursing.

Seeber, I., De Vreede, G. J., Maier, R., & Weber, B. (2017). Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in TeamsJournal of Management Information Systems34(4), 939-969.

 

 

 

 

Life Connected: Creating a Blog in Nursing

This blog is 18 months old, has 170 posts and increasing numbers of visitors so it’s going well in its little niche area of nurse educator resources. The ‘we’ has become ‘me’ in the last 12 months due to other work commitments, training and exams for my co-creator. So here are a few things I have reflected on during the blogging journey:

  1. Writing skills – I keep the posts short and hopefully focused for learning on the go. I just don’t have the storytelling skills that I see other blogger’s use. I feel more confident in using an approach that is comfortable for me, and hopefully others find useful.
  2. Positive Approach- The sharing and discussion around resources, rather than the critique continues to be the focus. I am not a professor or an academic so I will leave the critiquing to the experts.
  3. Lifelong Learning – I love all the clinical, education and other array of resources that I read as preparation for the blog posts. I have continued with reading education focused books post qualification which is a major positive part of ongoing development.
  4. Learning Networks –  Mainly through social media platforms has expanded from the critical care community to a wider nursing network, but also wider to those in school and higher education, business leaders and motivators and authors/journalists. With this, the topics I am exposed to are so varied.
  5. Social Media – Tricky one with recent privacy issues in the news, but let’s focus on the agile sharing and discussion of evidence based practice.
  6. Discussion – there has been a few comments on posts but not as much discussion as I thought may be generated directly on the blog. However, discussion is occurring on other social media platforms so it may be just how people prefer to communicate in different media.
  7. Education not clinical focused – I have avoided any clinical nursing discussion and hopefully this keeps the blog away from the grey areas of clinical advice, accountability and professionalism!
  8. Slide-ology – I have tried to make the blog more visual, but this is okay if you have the internet bandwidth. I wonder if the images and embedded videos need to be removed and keep it plain text to enable true accessibility.
  9. FOANed – It’s still advert free and independent- but I have to work a few extra shifts to pay for the yearly costs of running the blog.
  10. Open Access – it’s complicated, but I do think all of healthcare (including patients/consumers) needs access to the best current evidence and this is not the case.
  11. Heutagogy –  amazing online resources being created by nursing students across the world. Impressed and in awe of their knowledge, awareness, mindfulness and reflections.
  12. Frequency of posts – It’s a balance with work, study, other projects and something called free time. I have at times been prepared with posts ready for the next 2 months, then in contrast it has ran on a week to week basis. Balancing work and formal study, the frequency has reduced from a post every 3 days to once per week but all academic assignments and deadlines were met.
  13. The blog is my organised notes – I can refer back to posts and resources with such ease, rather than searching through note books and folders.
  14. CPD – my hours are well and truly met.
  15. Coding – still on the to do list!
  16. Community of Practice – Part of the nurse blogging “WeNurses” community as part of the #NHS70 celebrations.
  17. Does the blog need a peer review process or keep it agile? One to ponder for the future.
  18. Fun – it’s actually been a rewarding experience.

Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM)

Some resources just stand out in their innovation, quality and delivery, and Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) has to be one of the best for education. This organisation is part of the free open access to medical education (#FOAMed) movement, so its all accessible. It shows if you don’t have access to journals, books or higher education, that the online world can still help supplement your education theory and development with peer reviewed resources. Take a look at the incubator project, is this the start of challenging the traditional education pathways? If the doctors can do it, surely nurses can be inspired to create a community of learning away from the traditional sources of knowledge and make learners as co-designers and change the agility in knowledge translation and evidence based practice?

Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM)

Image result for aliem

eBook of the ALiEM blog series available for review and to join the peer review process.

Community of practice approach to learning networks.

Image result for aliem

“The ALiEM Faculty Incubator Project is a year-long professional development program for educators, which enrolls members into a mentored digital community of practice. This small, 30-person, exclusive community will stoke the fires of creative engagement through mentorship and collaboration. We aim to strengthen your educational skills and produce tangible works of scholarship. Our goal is to construct a curriculum, delivered to you in a closed digital platform, and help you launch and accelerate your career development.”

Lacking in academic integrity I hear you say, take a look at the publication list around learning, education and social media from their team.

 

Follow the @ALiEMteam on Twitter.

 

 

 

The Role of Debriefing in Simulation-Based Learning. 

Journal Club Article: Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007). The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2), 115-125.

Purpose

Determining what is important in the aspects of debriefing within simulation based learning.

Background

The importance of remembering the adult learner, and all the experience they bring through knowledge, assumptions and feelings. Active participation and leveling (#Heutagogy) of the traditional hierachies between teacher and learner are part of the adult learning philosophy. The adult learner is seen as self-directed, motivated and learns from meaningful and work related education that can applied in workplace.

“Adults learn best when they are actively engaged in the process, participate, play a role, and experience not only concrete events in a cognitive fashion, but also transactional events in a emotional fashion. The learner must make sense of the events experienced in terms of their own world” (pg. 115).

“The concept of reflection on an event or activity and subsequent analysis is the cornerstone of the experiential learning experience.” (pg. 116).

Origins of debriefing in simulation were from critical stress incident debriefing and to do this in a timely manner post incident, with the aim to stimulate group cohesion and empathy.

The Debriefing Process

  • Supportive climate; open, sharing, honest, free to learn.
  • Environment of trust; the pre-brief to explain the purpose of the simulation and what is to be expected.
  • The roles of debriefer and those to be debriefed.

Models of Debriefing

The aim of the debrief is to make sense of the event. The structure of the simulation may be:

  1. Experience the event,
  2. Reflect on the event,
  3. Discuss the event with other participants,
  4. Learn and modify behaviour learnt from the experience.

Objectives

As ever match learning such as the debriefing to the learning objectives. Allow emergent and evolving learning that occurs throughout the simulation process. “Two main questions:

  1. Which pieces of knowledge, skills, or knowledge are to be learned?
  2. What specifically should be learned about each of them?”

Role of The Facilitator

The facilitator will be a Co-learner in the simulation with the aim to guide and direct, rather than a traditional lecture based authoritarian approach. Debriefing is a skill and requires training and development. Resources such as the support from experts to guide and develop are important in developing simulation skills.

Debriefing 

Dismukes & Smith (2017) describe three levels of facilitation:

  1. High: High level facilitation actually requires low level of involvement from the facilitator. “Participants largely debrief themselves with the facilitator outlining the debriefing process and assisting by gently guiding the discussion only when necessary, and acting as a resource to ensure objectives are met” (pg 119).
  2. Intermediate: “An increased level of instructor involvement may be useful when the individual or team requires help to analyze the experience at a deep level, but are capable of much independent discussion” (pg 119).
  3. Low: “An intensive level of instructor involvement may be necessary where teams show little initiative or respond only superficially” (pg 120).

Summary 

The debrief is described as ” the heart and soul of the simulation”.

Resources

Dismukes, R. K., & Smith, G. M. (2017). Facilitation and debriefing in aviation training and operations. Routledge.

Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007). The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2), 115-125.

Lederman, L. C. (1991, July). Differences that make a difference: Intercultural communication, simulation, and the debriefing process in diverse interaction. In Annual Conference of the International Simulation and Gaming Association, Kyoto, Japan (pp. 15-19).

Petranek, C. (1994). A maturation in experiential learning: Principles of simulation and gaming. Simulation & Gaming25(4), 513-523.

Thatcher, D. C., & Robinson, M. J. (1985). An introduction to games and simulations in education. Hants: Solent Simulations.

Book Club: Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning by John Hattie

Book Club: Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

6 signposts towards education excellence:

  1. Teachers are one of the most powerful learning influencers,
  2. Teachers need to be passionately engaged,
  3. Teachers need to provide effective individualistic feedback,
  4. Both student and teacher need to know and understand the learning intentions,
  5. The learners construction of knowledge and ideas is critical,
  6. Safe learning environments where mistakes are encouraged and exploration of knowledge occurs.

Education Holy Grail improving education and interactions between student and teacher.

What are the core attributes to schooling that make the difference? The focus is not the buildings or programs but on the practice of teaching. Students learn to become their own teacher, to exhibit attributes of self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-assessment and self-teaching.

Visible teaching and learning occurs when there is feedback given and sought, and when there are active, passionate, and engaging people (teacher, students, peers) participating in the act of learning” (pg 18).

“The act of teaching requires deliberate interventions to ensure that there is a cognitive change in the student” (pg 19).

Safe Environment

Idea rich environment where experimenting can occur and sharing ideas.

“A safe environment for the learner (and for the teacher) is an environment in which error is welcomed and fostered” (pg 19).

The Challenge

“When students become their own teachers, they exhibit the self-regulatory attributes that seem desirable for learners (self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-assessment, self-teaching)” (pg 19).

Deliberate practice needs to occur and the student to be challenged in this safe environment, to aid the construction of knowledge.

“It is challenge that keeps us investing in pursuing goals and committed to achieving goals” (pg 57).

Preparing Lessons

4 critical parts in planning:

  1. “Students starting levels of performance (prior),
  2. The desired level of performance (target),
  3. Rate of progress (progression),
  4. Teacher collaboration and critique in planning” (pg. 41).

Best Practice Lesson Plans

  1. Know the learning intentions (the teacher),
  2. Understand expected standards of performance (the student),
  3. Build commitment and engagement in the learning task.
  4. Guide for the teacher on best delivery of the lesson (guided delivery),
  5. Guided practice for students to complete a task and receive constructive feedback,
  6. Closure provides clear cues when students are at important points in learning,
  7. Independent practice follows mastery of a topic.

Structured of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO)

SOLO taxonomy: Levels of understanding can be grouped as surface, deep and conceptual and the use of SOLO taxonomy can integrate them into learning intentions and achievement criteria.

Starting The Lesson

The climate of the classroom is a critical factor in promoting learning. A high level of relational trust and respect for each person’s role in learning. The classroom is a place for the student to dominate, not the teacher where there is a “need to talk, listen and do”.

Learning

Start with the desired results and then work backwards, the focus is then on the gap. This knowledge gap is where the teachers focus on the student and how they learn. The importance of motivation on goal setting and strategies to close the gap, and to recognise motivation varies at any given time.  Deliberate practice allows learning to meaningful and a meta-cognitive approach to instruction allows multiple opportunities for practice.

Visual Learning Infographics

Resources

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge. [GoodReads review]

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge [sample].

Nursing Education Network. (2017). John Hattie and Visible learning for Teachers.

 

Dialogic Leadership by William Isaacs

Journal Club Article: Isaacs, W. (1999). Dialogic leadership. The Systems Thinker, 10(1), 1-5.

“Human beings create, refine, and share knowledge through conversation.”

The Concept of Dialogue

“In the new knowledge-based, networked economy, the ability to talk and think together well is a vital source of competitive advantage and organizational effectiveness.

Think Together

A hallmark for many of us is that there are “no surprises” in our meetings. Yet this is the antithesis of dialogue. In dialogue people learn to use the energy of their differences to enhance their collective wisdom.

Dialogue Versus Discussion

Dialogue signifies a flow of meaning while “discussions are conversations where people hold onto and defend their differences. The hope is that the clash of opinion will illuminate productive pathways for action and insight. Yet in practice, discussion often devolves into rigid debate, where people view one another as positions to agree with or refute, not as partners in a vital, living relationship. Such exchanges represent a series of one-way streets, and the end results are often not what people wish for: polarized arguments where people withhold vital information and shut down creative options.”

Dialogic Leadership

“Dialogic leadership” is the term given to a way of leading that consistently uncovers, through conversation, the hidden creative potential in any situation. Four distinct qualities support this process, the abilities:

  1. to evoke people’s genuine voices,
  2. to listen deeply,
  3. to hold space for and respect as legitimate other people’s views, and
  4. to broaden awareness and perspective.

Four-Player Model

Four distinct kinds of actions that a person may take in any conversation:

  1. Move
  2. Follow
  3. Oppose
  4. Bystand

Balancing Advocacy & Inquiry 

To advocate well, you must move and oppose well; to inquire, you must bystand and follow.

Four Practices for Dialogic Leadership

  1. Listening: the ability to listen together
  2. Respecting: true respect enables genuine inquiry
  3. Suspending: to bystand with awareness
  4. Voicing: courageous speech

Changing the Quality of Action

Dialogic leadership focuses attention on two levels at once: the nature of the actions people take during an interaction and the quality of those interactions.  Dialogic leadership implies being a living example of what you speak about – that is, demonstrating these qualities in your daily life.”

Keywords: Advocacy; Inquiry; Dialogic; Leadership.

Thanks to Intensivist and Education Specialist Cameron Knott for guiding towards this resource (#CoP).

Resources:

Isaacs, W. (2008). Dialogue: The art of thinking together. Crown Business. [GoodReads review]

Isaacs, W. (1999). Dialogic leadership. The Systems Thinker, 10(1), 1-5.

Coelho Amestoy, S., Schubert Backes, V. M., Buss Thofehrn, M., Gue Martini, J., Schlindwein Meirelles, B. H., & de Lima Trindade, L. (2014). Dialogic leadership: strategies for application in the hospital environmentInvestigacion y educacion en enfermeria32(1), 119-127.

Social Media Analytics & Big Data: Symplur Healthcare Hashtags

Using analytics and big data in education can provide patterns of communication and connectivity when engaging on social media platforms. Following a hashtag from a conference, online journal club, Tweetchat or online forum can open up a new community of practice around various healthcare specialities. As a facilitator wouldn’t you want to look at the trending words, discussion themes, the number of connections (network analysis) and members of the community (and the influencers)?

Tools such as Symplur can provide social media analytics.

Here are a couple of hashtags to follow and see who the main influencers are:

  1. #FOANed
  2. #eNurse
  3. #nurseeducator
  4. #Ecmologist (one for the future?)

 

Published Articles Using Analytics 

Nason, G. J., O’Kelly, F., Bouchier-Hayes, D., Quinlan, D. M., & Manecksha, R. P. (2015). Twitter expands the reach and engagement of a national scientific meeting: the Irish Society of UrologyIrish Journal of Medical Science (1971-)184(3), 685-689.

Roland, D., Spurr, J., & Cabrera, D. (2017). Preliminary evidence for the emergence of a health care online community of practice: using a netnographic framework for Twitter hashtag analyticsJournal of medical Internet research19(7).

Thoma, B., Rolston, D., & Lin, M. (2014). Global emergency medicine journal club: Social media responses to the march 2014 annals of emergency medicine journal club on targeted temperature management. Annals of Emergency Medicine64(2), 207-212.

Supervision Skills in Nursing

Instructional

Across nursing and healthcare, the supervision of students is an important component of training and learning. Clinical placements and the experiential learning experience are essential for developing and applying learned theoretical knowledge in the clinical environment. Undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate and new staff are all some of the unique supervision opportunities for nurses to support. Not every nurse will be interested in formal education, but it is likely they will be a preceptor or supervisor. Therefore it is important nurses understand the skills required for effective supervision. Skills such as reflective practice, assessment and feedback are part of this supervision. Being made to feel welcome and recognised as an important part of the team, just basic socialisation aspects to the nursing team.

Supervision

Supervision is defined “as a formal process of professional support and learning which enables individual practitioners to develop knowledge and competence, and is acknowledged to be a life-long process” (Martin, Copley, & Tyack, 2014, p. 201).

“Clinical Supervision is regular, protected time for facilitated, in-depth reflection on clinical practice” (Bond and Holland,1998 p. 12)

Models of Supervision

Proctor’s model of supervision is perhaps the most commonly used within health care. “Supervision towards reflective practice” (Proctor, 2010). Proctor’s framework focuses on 3 areas of supervision:

  1. Normative: managerial aspect of practice and learning, such as professional CPD and core mandatory training.
  2. Formative: educative aspect of developing knowledge and skills in professional development and use self reflection for self awareness development. The aim is “to become increasingly reflective upon practice” within the supervision process (Proctor 2001, p.31).
  3. Restorative: supportive aspect for personal development, improving stress management and burnout prevention.

Clinical Supervision Skills Review Tool 

This Clinical Supervision Skills Review Tool is a helpful resource to review your supervision skills. More about this resource in the video below.

Other resources:

Note: This blog post resources and notes were taken from attending an education session ran by Monash University on supervision.

References

Boud, D., & Molloy, E. (2013). Rethinking models of feedback for learning: the challenge of designAssessment & Evaluation in Higher Education38(6), 698-712.

Carrucan-Wood, L. (2015). Preceptorship: Grounding and growing the next generation. Nursing Review.

Department of Health and Human Services. (2015) Clinical Supervision Skills Review Tool.  Victorian Government, Melbourne.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedbackReview of educational research77(1), 81-112.

Martin, P., Copley, J., & Tyack, Z. (2014). Twelve tips for effective clinical supervision based on a narrative literature review and expert opinionMedical teacher36(3), 201-207.

Proctor, B. (2010). Training for the supervision alliance: Attitude, Skills and Intention. In Routledge handbook of clinical supervision (pp. 51-62). Routledge.

Sloan, G., & Watson, H. (2002). Clinical supervision models for nursing: structure, research and limitationsNursing Standard (through 2013)17(4), 41.

Winstanley, J. (2000). Manchester clinical supervision scale. Nursing Standard (through 2013)14(19), 31.

 

Monitor Like a Pro: Continuous ST segment monitoring

Time is Muscle

Delivering continuous ST-segment monitoring for those at risk of myocardial infarction can provide a dynamic approach to cardiac monitoring, picking up changes in the ST-segment. This can supplement the continuous bedside ecg monitoring, static 12 lead ecg and monitoring the trend of cardiac enzymes such as Troponin’s, CK, CK-MB.

This is not new technology, its been around since the mid-1980s. Take a read of the resources below on the theory, how to set up, best lead for monitoring of suspected occluded coronary artery for monitoring of ischaemia.

ST and STEMI Maps

 

Keywords: ST Elevation; J-Point; Myocardial Infarction; AMI; STEMI; NSTEMI

Resources

Sangkachand, P., Sarosario, B., & Funk, M. (2011). Continuous ST-segment monitoring: nurses’ attitudes, practices, and quality of patient careAmerican Journal of Critical Care20(3), 226-238.

Sandau, K. E., & Smith, M. (2009). Continuous ST-segment monitoring: protocol for practiceCritical care nurse29(4), 39-49.

Leeper, B. (2003). Continuous ST-segment monitoring. AACN Advanced Critical Care14(2), 145-154.

Aust, M. P. (2011). continuous St-segment Monitoring. American Journal of Critical Care20(3), 239-239.

GE Healthcare. (2010). Quick Guide 12 Lead ST-segment Monitoring.

Sydney LHD. (2015). Continuous ST Monitoring in Intensive care Unit (ICU).

Note: This post is not sponsored or endorsed by an products or companies, it’s purely focused on understanding monitoring technology and potentially enhancing the level of care delivered in acute coronary care situations. Please share any other monitoring methods or technologies in the comment section below.