Kirkpatrick 10 Requirements for an Effective Training Program

Learning & Development

Training & Evaluation guidance for delivering quality education programs: ” we strongly suggest that you take the right steps to ensure that training is actually accomplishing what it was intended to do and contributing to the bottom line. Don’t think about evaluation in terms of demonstrating overall value until you are sure you have done all you can to ensure that your training programs are effective” (pg. 3, Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2009). 

Ten Requirements for an Effective Training Program

  1. Base the program on the needs of the participants.
    • Needs analysis from the learners on what they need to learn and also what the organisation needs to develop.
    • View from the perspective of managers and the organisation.
  2. Set learning objectives.
    • What is expected to be learned
    • Any behaviour or cultural changes?
  3. Schedule the program at the right time.
    • Best method of delivery and time/day for the learners. Engage a positive mindset from the start.
  4. Hold the program at the right place with the right amenities.
    • Right location for appropriate amenities and travel time.
  5. Invite the right people to attend.
    • Right number, right mix of hierarchy within team members.
  6. Select effective instructors.
    • Internal or external subject matter experts.
  7. Use effective techniques and aids.
  8. Accomplish the program objectives (return to point 2).
  9. Participant satisfaction.
  10. Evaluate the program


Kirkpatrick, D. L. & Kirkpatrick, J.D. (2009). Implementing the four levels: A practical guide for effective evaluation of training programs. Berrett-Koehler Publishers [exerpt].

Kirkpatrick Model of Evaluation

Learning and Development

Level 1: Reaction

Gain insight into the learners reactions and attitudes to the training by analysis of the feedback. Consider what changes could be made following review of the responses. Some ideas for questions:

  • How engaged was the learner
  • Was the training valuable to your learning?
  • 3 most important things learned?
  • Was the training successful?
  • What were the biggest strengths and weaknesses of the training?
  • Were the training engaging?
  • Was the training worth your time?

Level 2: Learning

The important stuff, what was or wasn’t learned? So measure against the specific learning objectives that were outlined in the program.

  • Testing pre and post program
  • Measures what learners may able to do differently as a result of the training
  • New skills, knowledge, attitudes
  • Measure confidence levels, skills, attitudes and knowledge

Level 3: Behaviour

The aim is to understand how people apply their training.

  • What changes occured post training?
  • How was the training knowledge and skills applied?
  • Are there any behaviours changes?
  • Are trainees able to teach their new knowledge, skills or attitudes to other people?

With results in an organisation workplace the aim would be to encourage, reinforce and reward positive changes in behavior.

Level 4: Results

  • What are final results of your training?
  • Conduct analysis of the outcomes.
  • Was the program a success?
  • A positive return on the investment in the program?

Cautionary Point: This model was first designed in 1959, although has been updated.

See our post on Kirkpatrick 10 Requirements for an Effective Training Program.

Update from social media discussion following this post was a resource shared called Learning Transfer Evaluation Model (LTEM) by Work-Learning Research, which “is an improvement over the Kirkpatrick-Katzell Four-Level Model in many respects, notably providing significant improvement and specificity in regards to learning outcomes. Where the Four-Level model crammed all learning into one bucket, LTEM differentiates between knowledge, decision-making, and task competence—enabling learning teams to target more meaningful learning outcomes.”


Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2009). Implementing the four levels: A practical guide for effective evaluation of training programs. [excerpt].

Kirkpatrick Partners. (2019). The Kirkpatrick Model.

Kurt, S. (2016). “Kirkpatrick Model: Four Levels of Learning Evaluation,” in Educational Technology.

The Science of Learning: Quick Revision Tips

Here are a few quick revision tips to put into practice when studying.

Chunking Theory: Make it bitesize the content you are learning. It’s unlikely you can remember entire chapters, so take keypoints and relate them to the clinical environment (make the hooks to link theory to clinical situations)

Challenge: Test yourself, check the textbooks you are using and often you will find questions to challenge your knowledge.

Recall: Try to recall the main ideas when you have completed an article or chapter. Repeat this recall at a different time, maybe when exercising or sitting on the bus. Can you recall all the salient points?

Spaced learning: short bursts, repeated over a set time period.

Interleaving: “Interleaving two or more subjects during practice also provides a form of spacing” (Brown, Roediger & McDaniel, 2014).

For more information on studying try this post on Good and Bad Studying.

12 Tips for Applying the Science of Learning to Health Professions Education.

Journal Club Article: Gooding, H. C., Mann, K., & Armstrong, E. (2017). Twelve tips for applying the science of learning to health professions educationMedical teacher39(1), 26-31.

Background: There is a vast amount of data around the science of learning. The evidence comes from an array of specialties, from cognitive psychology, neuroscience, sociology, anthropology and behavioral economics. Much of the evidence is siloed within each speciality and/or level of education practice from school grade, higher education and the professional workplace domains.

Aim: 6 themes are identified that highlight the complex relationship in supporting education. 12 practical tips are provided for utilising the principles around the science of learning.

  • Improving the processing of information: Cognitive Load Theory: working memory and processing only certain amount of information and stored in long term memory for later use.
    • Reduce extraneous load whenever possible, especially relevant for the teacher during course design or presenting new information.
    • Help learners manage intrinsic load: build schemas through starting by using simple examples then building to complex tasks. Chunking content into manageable or ‘bitesize’ worloads.
  • Promoting effortful learning: If not used regularly what is learned is often forgotten.
    • Retrieval practice: by retrieving information from long term memory aids and strengthens neural connections.
    • Spaced retrieval and interleaving content
  • Applying learned information to new and varied contexts:
    • Applied what has been learned to new and different contexts, known as ‘transfer’.
    • To build schemas with clinical reasoning and problem solving.
  • Developing expertise: Promote the development of novice to expert.
    • Deliberate practice: practice like you play.
    • Encourage learners to create learning-orientated goals.
  • Harnessing the power of emotion for learning: Recognize emotional state and impact on learning
    • Create safe learning spaces.
  • Teaching and learning in social context: social learning theory (Bandura, 1986)
    • Learning occurs dynamically with interactions in the environment, learning is social.
    • Social nature of learning through the values, language and skill in the community.
    • Create authentic experiences in workplace learning. In adult learning it needs to be authentic and relevant for the learner.
    • Metacognition: thinking about thinking.

Further Reading

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.

Mayer, R. E. (2008). Applying the science of learning: Evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instructionAmerican Psychologist63(8), 760.

Young, J. Q., Van Merrienboer, J., Durning, S., & Ten Cate, O. (2014). Cognitive load theory: Implications for medical education: AMEE guide no. 86Medical teacher36(5), 371-384.

Creating effective learning in today’s emergency departments

Journal Club Article: Bandiera, G., Lee, S., & Tiberius, R. (2005). Creating effective learning in today’s emergency departments: how accomplished teachers get it doneAnnals of Emergency Medicine45(3), 253-261.

Background: The Emergency department (ED) should be an ideal place for learning but due to the unpredictive nature of the workload, significant impediments occur which can effect teaching opportunities. The wide variety patient presentations balanced with an array of learners in crowded and compromised ED departments.

Aim: To investigate the ambulatory teaching techniques that ED clinical teachers demonstrate in terms of prerequisites, behaviour and impediments for good teaching to occur.

Methods: A qualitative grounded-theory analysis using a structured telephone survey. Participants were current Canadian emergency medicine teaching faculty (N= 33, participated out of potential 43].

Results: 12 strategies used during clinical teaching, 8 prerequisites to being an effective ED teacher and 6 impediments to teaching were identified.

Strategies for Good ED Teaching Practices:

  1. Tailor teaching to the learner
  2. Optomize teacher-learner interaction
  3. Tailor teaching to the situation
  4. Actively involve the learner
  5. Actively seek opportunities to teach
  6. Agree on expectations
  7. Demonstrate a good teacher attitude
  8. Make use of additional teaching resources
  9. Use teaching methods beyond patient care
  10. Be a role model
  11. Provide and encourage feedback
  12. Improve the environment (private space for learning; access to resources; learner-friendly schedule).

Prerequisites for Good ED Teaching Practices:

  1. Competing demands
  2. Time
  3. Lack of resources
  4. Lack of interest
  5. Educational structure
  6. Poor preparation

Impediments to Good ED Teaching Practices:

  1. Attitude
  2. Environment
  3. Enthusiasm and motivation
  4. Receptive student
  5. Role model
  6. Skills
  7. Confidence
  8. Knowledge base

Key Messages: Accomplished ED teachers identify strategies and prerequisites for improving teaching, however impediments to good teaching occur. Adult learning strategies of learner-centredness, contextual relevance and active learning are key in ambulatory teaching.

Additional Resource: One Minute Preceptor by Nursing Education Network

Teaching Perspectives Inventory.

Its a good time, mid year to take some reflection time and take a self review on your education practice. The Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) can provide a framework for this reflective exercise.

What Is The TPI?

  • 45 item inventory.
  • Aids the collation of ideas and thoughts around education
  • 5 main domains of learning, motivation, education goals, teacher role, nature of learners and influence of context.
  • Helps to better understand beliefs-actions-intentions of teaching.
  • On completion provides a Teaching Perspectives profile.

Why Take The TPI?

The Teaching Perspectives Inventory can help if,

  • “Preparing for a teaching evaluation
  • Creating your teacher portfolio
  • Reflecting on your teaching
  • Researching teaching perspectives
  • Curious about different approaches to teaching”

TPI & Good Teaching

Summarising the TPI results into different perspectives for your profile will focus around the following perspectives:

  • Transmission
  • Apprenticeship
  • Developmental
  • Nurturing
  • Social Reform


Teaching Perspectives Inventory

Collins, J. B., & Pratt, D. D. (2011). The teaching perspectives inventory at 10 years and 100,000 respondents: Reliability and validity of a teacher self-report inventoryAdult Education Quarterly61(4), 358-375.

Pratt, D. D. (1998). Five perspectives on teaching in adult and higher education. Krieger Publishing Co.

Pratt, D. D., & Collins, J. B. (2000). The teaching perspectives inventory (TPI).

Education In Healthcare

Introduce and provide an overview of education theories:

  • Constructivism
  • Experiential Learning
  • Communities of Practice (CoP’s)

This is the first presentation from the Nursing Education Network series. All based on microlearning, they will be short quick snippets on education topics to provide an introductory overview.