Social Media & Healthcare: The Literature

This post is more a reference to the growing evidence of SoMe in healthcare.  New publications will be added as I discover them in the literature and please add any ones I may have missed in the comment section. All resources from this post have been created into a Social Media & Healthcare Google+ community, which you can also add relevant resources to as well and add valuable comments.


Azzam, A., Bresler, D., Leon, A., Maggio, L., Whitaker, E., Heilman, J., … & Trotter, F. (2017). Why Medical Schools Should Embrace Wikipedia: Final-Year Medical Student Contributions to Wikipedia Articles for Academic Credit at One School. Academic Medicine, 92(2), 194.

Borgmann, H., DeWitt, S., Tsaur, I., Haferkamp, A., & Loeb, S. (2015). Novel survey disseminated through Twitter supports its utility for networking, disseminating research, advocacy, clinical practice and other professional goals. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 9(9-10), E713.

Cain, J. (2011). Social media in health care: the case for organizational policy and employee education. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 68(11), 1036.

Campbell, L., Evans, Y., Pumper, M., & Moreno, M. A. (2016). Social media use by physicians: a qualitative study of the new frontier of medicine. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 16(1), 91.

Carroll, C. L., & Bruno, K. (2016). Social Media and Free Open Access Medical Education: The Future of Medical and Nursing Education? American Journal of Critical Care, 25(1), 93-96.

Chan, T., Trueger, N. S., Roland, D., & Thoma, B. (2017). Evidence-based medicine in the era of social media: Scholarly engagement through participation and online interaction. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1-6.

Chretien, K. C., & Kind, T. (2013). Social Media and Clinical Care. Circulation, 127(13), 1413-1421.

DeCamp, M., Koenig, T. W., & Chisolm, M. S. (2013). Social media and physicians’ online identity crisisJama310(6), 581-582.

Greene, J. (2013). Social media and physician learning. Annals of emergency medicine, 62(5), A11-A13.

Grajales III, F. J., Sheps, S., Ho, K., Novak-Lauscher, H., & Eysenbach, G. (2014). Social media: a review and tutorial of applications in medicine and health careJournal of medical Internet research16(2), e13.

Hawn, C. (2009). Take two aspirin and tweet me in the morning: how Twitter, Facebook, and other social media are reshaping health care. Health affairs28(2), 361-368.

Jain, S. H. (2009). Practicing medicine in the age of FacebookNew England Journal of Medicine361(7), 649-651

Mollett, A., Brumley, C., Gilson, C., & Williams, S. (2017). Communicating Your Research with Social Media: A Practical Guide to Using Blogs, Podcasts, Data Visualisations and Video. SAGE.

Mollett, A., Moran, D., & Dunleavy, P. (2011). Using Twitter in university research, teaching and impact activities.

Moorley, C., & Chinn, T. (2014). Using social media for continuous professional development. Journal of advanced nursing.

Panahi, S., Watson, J., & Partridge, H. (2016). Social media and physicians: exploring the benefits and challenges. Health informatics journal22(2), 99-112.

Peoples, B. K., Midway, S. R., Sackett, D., Lynch, A., & Cooney, P. B. (2016). Twitter Predicts Citation Rates of Ecological Research. PloS one, 11(11), e0166570.

Ranschaert, E. R., Van Ooijen, P. M., McGinty, G. B., & Parizel, P. M. (2016). Radiologists’ usage of social media: Results of the RANSOM survey. Journal of digital imaging, 29(4), 443-449.

Roland D, Spurr J, Cabrera D. (2017) Preliminary Evidence for the Emergence of a Health Care Online Community of Practice: Using a Netnographic Framework for Twitter Hashtag Analytics. J Med Internet Res.19(7):e252. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7072

Rozenblum, R., & Bates, D. W. (2013). Patient-centred healthcare, social media and the internet: the perfect storm?. BMJ Quality & Safety.

Topolovec-Vranic, J., & Natarajan, K. (2016). The Use of Social Media in Recruitment for Medical Research Studies: A Scoping Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(11).

Van Noorden, R. (2014). Scientists and the social network. Nature, 512(7513), 126.

Ventola, C. L. (2014). Social media and health care professionals: benefits, risks, and best practices. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(7), 491.

Villanti, A. C., Johnson, A. L., Ilakkuvan, V., Jacobs, M. A., Graham, A. L., & Rath, J. M. (2017). Social Media Use and Access to Digital Technology in US Young Adults in 2016. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(6), e196.

Wilson, R., Ranse, J., Cashin, A., & McNamara, P. (2013). Nurses and Twitter: The good, the bad, and the reluctant. Collegian. Chicago.

Zahedi, Z., Costas, R., Larivière, V., & Haustein, S. (2017). What makes papers visible on social media? An analysis of various document characteristics. arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.05777.



Making The Internet and Resources Accessible

This is my consideration to reviewing accessibility of this blog and to aid future creation of resources. After reading this post by Finn Gardiner on neurodiversity inclusiveness it really makes you consider how you create education items. At times I have created short video recordings and added them into YouTube for students to access, normally talking over a few powerpoint slides explaining focus of upcoming course content or discussing an article for journal club but had never thought to add captioning or subtitles. The below resources explain the reasons for inclusivity and then a how to guide to add captions ‘Charlie Chaplin’ style. At the bottom right of this blog, is a translate option that hopefully allows more accessibility.

I try to add a mix of text, image and video resource to provide a variety of sources of information and to keep it light and interesting (#microlearning). What I am not sure about is the accessibility or loading speed for those accessing around the world. The open access approach means quick access, no passwords, payments but access to published articles is dependent on publisher rights so sometimes only a link to a abstract can be provided.

Make The Internet Accessible by Annie Elainey.


Creating Subtitles and Closed Captions on Your Youtube Videos by Derral Eves


Finn Gardiner (2017) 5 ways to make your web content more neurodiversity inclusive.

National Association of The Deaf (2017) Captioning on the internet.


The Conversation Prism: Social Networks

If we consider the expectations of an educator, as to having the knowledge and understanding of technological trends, including social media. The overall aim is to ensure we are connecting to social networks, experience new ideas and remaining current. It also allows us to try new ways to do things, maybe without the need for any budget, which means other than our own time what have we to lose in trying something new? Take a minute to look at the visual map and put yourself in the centre of the wheel and reflect on the different social media you use, have tried and ones you are interested in for future use. Consider what your students now or in the future may use, remember the tools we use now may well be gone in 5-10 years time. Investing in technology for education purposes is a difficult task, as who knows what innovation is coming next?

What is The Conversation Prism?

According to Brian Solis who developed The Conversation Prism in 2008. The Conversation Prism is “a visual map of the social media landscape. It’s an ongoing study in digital ethnography that tracks dominant and promising social networks and organizes them by how they’re used in everyday life”. A new updated prism is due soon so keep an eye out at

Image:The Conversation Prism (Brian Solis + JESS3)

See my own brainstorm for developing social media and technology skills as part of becoming a networked educator.

Networked Teacher Brainstorm


Solis, B. & JESS3 (2017). The Conversation Prism

Nursing Education Network (2016). The Networked Teacher 


Internet Sheep: Ask Questions

We are anonymousThe World Wide Web developed by Tim Berners-Lee was created with public domain rights, but the internet creates much discussion and opinions on open source, copyright, privacy, financial and political  views.

“As a globally distributed network of voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks, the Internet operates without a central governing body. It has no centralized governance for either technology or policies (Wikipedia, 2016).”

In healthcare the potential for big data to improve knowledge and understanding of disease could be vastly improved with a global access to health records.  Below are some of the discussions around the internet, both good and bad.

The Internet’s Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz

Anonymous – It is time to know the truth 2017

Here’s How We Take Back The Internet: Edward Snowden 

Keywords: curiosity; thinking; knowledge; global citizen; we are legion.


Marrt, B. (2015) How Big Data is Changing Healthcare. Forbes

Wikileaks (2016)

Wikipedia (2016) World Wide Web


Nurse Educator Role: A Guide For The New Nurse Educator

Starting out as a nurse educator can be a daunting and ‘thrown in at the deep end’ experience. Teaching to students, colleagues and other nurses in the workplace or higher education setting presents an array of challenges. But now you’re in the role, your expected to be able to deliver many types of education and understand adult education theory. We will provide some tips on starting out and helpful resources in these first critical elements of the role.

  • Intended Learning Outcomes: Start and finish with intended learning outcomes. This gives focus to your teaching, helps to keep on track and guides the students in what they should be getting out of attending the learning session/s (more information on intended learning outcomes).
  • Lesson Plan: Create a lesson plan to deliver focused education sessions. Make the most out of the valuable teaching time by being organised (lesson plan template).
  • Education Philosophy: First resource to consider is reading Malcolm Knowles’ The Adult Learner (link here). In nursing, the constructivist pathway for nursing proficiency is standard, so using Patricia Benner’s (1984) Novice to Expert framework is a good starting resource (link here).
  • Taxonomy: Anderson & Krathwohl (2001) revision and understanding of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy provides consideration and assessment of different levels of knowledge, in particular for setting learning outcomes to guide the nurse educator (link here).
  • Social Learning Theory: Group work and collaboration are encouraged for adult learners, we are social learners. Can you replace the lecture with a case study or simulation for more hands on and real life learning scenarios? Make it team based or collaborative approach. Help facilitate communities of practice (CoP’s).
  • Facilitation Style: remove the traditional teacher approach and you quickly move your style to that of facilitator, encouraging adult learning and increasing engagement from the students. Adults engage in authentic learning tasks so link content to their professional environment. (#Heutagogy)
  • Flip & Prepare: If you’re an organised educator then provide a link to the content or topics to be discussed for your students to access. Maybe provide a key reading so students attend ready to get straight into the topic. Remember, the flipped classroom approach requires a motivated group who will complete any pre-reading (link here). When work and life is busy, you will find yourself finishing presentations at 02:00 on the day of the talk, so sometimes just getting through the day is an achievement.
  • Presentation Skills: Avoid death by powerpoint, go along the visualisation pathway (Slide-ology). Add quizzes into your talk to engage and test your audience. Break down session times to meet attention spans of your students, rather than fit into a set timetable. Be flexible, if the group look tired or need a break, give it to them and start again after a coffee fix. Here is one for the bored audience Presentation Bingo. 
  • Timing: This is important to ensure the aims of the session are covered, trying to fit in too much content is common at the start. A mixture of preparation, practice and experience seems to help with timing. When you become comfortable with the content and environment, it all seems to fall into place. Sometimes it can all go wrong with room bookings, guest presenters are late and equipment malfunctions, this is when you get creative and ‘wing it’. Try to have a back up plan, imagine you have no electricity or devices, how could you deliver the session in the best alternative method.
  • Handouts: You can find education research arguing for and against handouts. Some state that providing handouts makes students switch off as you have provided them with the content so they don’t bother engaging, so instead hand them out at the end. When you don’t provide handouts, you will find students complain, as they like to make notes. You will find students have a mix of handwritten and electronic note taking methods. Consider providing some brief outlines, key readings and space for students to take notes (provide either a paper or an electronic format).
  • Peer Observation: Observe other educators and use some of their approaches that you see students respond to or you believe in. Remember what seems effortless may well have taken them many attempts (a few fails along the way as well), so resist comparing yourself to them, they have developed their expertise over time.
  • Feedback: Ask for constructive feedback from your educator colleagues (#developrhinoskin).
  • Evaluations: Evaluations can be very helpful, just remember to collect a representative sample to provide a true evaluation of your teaching (link here).
  • Workload: Spread your time to make it all count and prioritise tasks. You have to make sure you catch up with all your students and keep up with other work commitments, which can be tricky to make sure everyone feels adequately supported. If you promise to see a student but are too busy or just forget, just provide an apology the student will likely be understanding. Try the one minute preceptor approach when days are busy and remember the “what is ……?” and the “why this intervention?” questions (link here).
  • Feedback Delivery: Giving effective and honest feedback can be a challenging experience. It’s not always going to be positive, but just remember to go along the constructive feedback pathway rather than destructive. Here is some advice from Nursing Times (link here) and below in the references are 2 articles on feedback from Clynes & Raferty (2008) and Duffy (2013).
  • Educators Education: You will find plenty of courses both formal and informal in developing your education and learning, so take a broad view depending on your time frame and budget. Don’t forget the opportunities social media brings to create a personal learning network and links to current topics and resources (#FOANed).


Anderson, L. W. and Krathwohl, D. R. (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Allyn & Bacon. Boston, MA (Pearson Education Group).

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert. Menlo Park.

Clynes, M. P., & Raftery, S. E. (2008). Feedback: an essential element of student learning in clinical practice. Nurse Education in Practice, 8(6), 405-411.

Duffy, K. (2013). Providing constructive feedback to students during mentoring. Nursing Standard, 27(31), 50.

Knowles, M. S., Holton III, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2014). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Routledge.

McNamara, P. (2016) A Nurse’s Guide To Twitter.

Race, P., Higgs, B., & Potter, J. (2008). In at the deep end: starting to teach in higher education. NAIRTL.

Sayers, J., DiGiacomo, M., & Davidson, P. (2011). The nurse educator role in the acute care setting in Australia: important but poorly described. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(4), 44-52.

Nursing Education Network (2016) Adult Learning (Androgogy).

Nursing Education Network (2016) Learning to Learn, Understanding Understanding.

Social Media: Where are the nurse leaders?

“Unfortunately, many nurse leaders, with years of experience in this multifaceted profession, have yet to join the conversation on social media. Therefore, the conversation is often led by novices in the field, simply because leaders are absent” (Carroll & Bruno, 2016).

As social media continues to change the face of healthcare, the necessity to understand and engage will become increasingly important to connect with colleagues, patients and other health systems. The flattening of healthcare hierarchies opens up the need to connect.

Evidence to persuade the doubters:

  • The creators of #WeNurses (Moorley & Chinn, 2014).
  • Evidence of using a hashtag at a conference and potential benefits, increased advertising, awareness for university and self-promotion (Wilson, Ranse, Cashin & McNamara, 2013).
  • Symplur: provides the analytics to provide quantitative analysis. Healthcare hashtags project on tweet chats, conferences that is a free open platform that connects to relevant conversations and communities.


• The development of social networks.
• The student/staff experience through improved student/staff partnerships.
• Utilisation of analytic tools to engage students and stimulate learning.
• Development of academic staff usage of social media.

Some Players

Just to counteract the above points, the following provide some great higher level healthcare insights.

Keywords: Social media, community of practice, collaboration, network, communication, evidence based practice, professional development, global citizen.


Moorley, C., & Chinn, T. (2014). Using social media for continuous professional development. Journal of Advanced Nursing.

Moorley, C. R., & Chinn, T. (2014). Nursing and Twitter: Creating an online community using hashtags. Collegian, 21(2), 103-109.

Carroll, C. L., & Bruno, K. (2016). Social Media and Free Open Access Medical Education: The Future of Medical and Nursing Education. American Journal of Critical Care, 25(1), 93-96.

Sinclair, W., McLoughlin, M., & Warne, T. (2015). To Twitter to Woo: Harnessing the power of social media (SoMe) in nurse education to enhance the student’s experience. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(6), 507-511.

Wilson, R., Ranse, J., Cashin, A., & McNamara, P. (2013). Nurses and Twitter: The good, the bad, and the reluctant. Collegian. Chicago.

Symplur. (2015) Doing research in healthcare social media.