Tools for Knowledge and Learning: A Guide for Development and Humanitarian Organisations

Journal Club Article: Ramalingam, B. (2006). Tools for knowledge and learning: A guide for development and humanitarian organizations. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Background

“No one should be dying or suffering because knowledge that already exists in one part of the world has not reached other parts. It is up to each of us to take the responsibility to ensure the knowledge flows easily to where it is needed” (Geoff Parcell, Learning to Fly, 2006).

The application of learning and knowledge based strategies derived from learning from lessons of the past and from elsewhere, to then overcome the challenges and boundaries of time and space.

Strategies of the Learning Organisation

A Holistic View of Knowledge and Learning Tools

  • Organisational contexts: Strategic alignment, management behaviours, institutional pressures, funding cycles, historical evolution.
  • Relationships and collaborations: within and across organisation – via networks, ICTs, communications plans; core functions; support functions.
  • Organisational knowledge: Forms and locations; creation, sharing, storage, use; key activities and tools; relevance, how the message is packaged and communicated.

Five Competencies Framework (Collison & Parcell, 2001)

Aim: “To work out how well they are performing against organisationally established criteria for knowledge and learning, and to identify goals and priorities for improvement. The competency framework works on the principle that effective knowledge and learning is based on improving performance in:

  1. Strategy Development
  2. Management Techniques
  3. Collaboration Mechanisms
  4. Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes
  5. Knowledge Capture and Storage.”

Knowledge Audits: Taking a systematic and strategic approach to knowledge and learning can help to integrate the diverse activities of an organisation, and facilitate more productive processes of knowledge sharing and dialogue between internal and external stakeholders.

Social Network Analysis: a research technique that focuses on identifying and comparing the relationships within and between individuals, groups and systems in order to model the real-world interactions at the heart of organisational knowledge and learning processes.

Most Significant Change (MSC): the process involves the collection of significant change (SC) stories emanating from the field level, and the systematic selection of the most important of these by panels of designated
stakeholders or staff.

Outcome Mapping: As development is essentially about people relating to each other and their environments, the focus is on people.

Visioning

A facilitator supports use of imagination to think of the ideal workspace, organisation and what the 5 year plan looks like,

Management Techniques

The SECI Approach

“There are four key processes through which tacit and explicit knowledge interact, namely, socialisation, externalisation, combination and internalisation. Together, these processes make up the SECI principles.

  • Socialisation allows to share tacit knowledge
  • Externalisation converts tacit into explicit knowledge
  • Combination combines different types of explicit knowledge
  • Internalisation converts explicit into tacit knowledge.”

SECI model of Knowledge creation.

Lewin’s Force Field Analysis

“Force Field Analysis was developed by Kurt Lewin (1951) and is widely used to inform decision making, particularly in planning and implementing change management programmes in organisations.”

 Activity Based Knowledge Mapping

“Is a tool which enables knowledge inputs and outputs to be
linked in a systematic fashion to ongoing organisational activities and processes – from office mail to strategic reviews.”

Other resources are also discussed.

Team Collaboration

“Team development has been described in terms of five stages, beginning with a simple ‘membership’ group, and working through ‘confrontation’ to a ‘shared-responsibility’ group (Bradford and Cohen, 1998). Bradford and Cohen suggest that the different stages of groups differ in terms of the following characteristics:

• Atmosphere and relationships
• Understanding and acceptance of goals
• Listening and information sharing
• Decision making
• Reaction to leadership
• Attention to the way the group is working.”

Communities of Practice

Action Learning Sets

Six Thinking Hats

Mind Maps or Concept Mapping

Social technologies for collaboration

Knowledge Sharing & Learning

  • Storytelling
  • Peer programs
  • Challenge sessions
  • How to guides
  • Blogs
  • Reviews and retrospects
  • Intranet resources

Additional Resources

Collison, C., & Parcell, G. (2001). Learning to fly: Practical lessons from one of the world’s leading knowledge companies. Capstone Ltd. [GoodReads]

Davies, R., & Dart, J. (2005). The ‘most significant change’(MSC) technique. A guide to its use.

Earl, S., Carden, F., & Smutylo, T. (2001). Outcome mapping: Building learning and reflection into development programs. IDRC, Ottawa, ON, CA.

Ramalingam, B. (2005). Implementing Knowledge Strategies: From Policy to Practice in Development Agencies. ODI Working Paper 244, London: ODI.

#Unconference: Journal Club

Journal Club Article: Carpenter, J. P., & Linton, J. N. (2018). Educators’ perspectives on the impact of Edcamp unconference professional learningTeaching and Teacher Education73, 56-69.

The Unconference or Edcamp

“Similar to other unconferences, Edcamps reject many traditional conference elements such as advance agendas and pre-planned presentations in order to avoid limiting participants’ creativity, collaboration, and engagement.”
Educator Professional Learning Development
“Many educators, scholars, and policy makers concur that educator professional learning is key to the improvement of teaching and student learning.”
Research Aims
1. What were participants’ perceptions regarding the impact of Edcamps on their educational practice?
2. What were participants’ perceptions regarding the impact of Edcamps on their students’ learning?
3. What factors did the participants identify as hindering and supporting their use of what they learned at Edcamps?
Participants
Survey sent 4-8 months post participation in an Edcamp.
  • Survey participating educators (N= 105), of which 88% were female.
  • Interview and focus group participants (N= 18), of which 55.6% were female.

The female ratio was consistent with the US education workforce.

Results

  • n=96 (91.4%) of respondents indicated that they had changed their practices as result of their Edcamp participation. Most commonly described changes were use of technology and use of new instructional strategies.
  • Perceived that those changes had some kind of positive impact on student learning, although this impact was not always quantifiable in terms of traditional measures of student achievement such as test scores.
  •  Teacher collaboration increased following Edcamp participation, particularly collaboration facilitated through technology among members of a professional learning network (PLN).
  • Participation provided new experiences for students and enabled students to gain new skills.
  • n=65 (61.9%) of participants reported that they encountered some type(s) of obstacles, barriers, or challenges as they tried to use what they learned via their Edcamp experience.

Limitations

Self reporting method, also the fact the educators participated in the Edcamp may indicate a motivated sample of educators.

Conclusions

“Participants overwhelmingly asserted that they had changed their practices as a result of their participation in Edcamps.

The Edcamp model appeared to positively affect teaching and learning while respecting the participants’ motivations, autonomy, experiences, and ultimately their professionalism and capacity to engage in complex intellectual work.

Those who organize and facilitate education conferences could apply our findings to identify new possibilities for conference structure and format.”

Reference

Carpenter, J. P., & Linton, J. N. (2018). Educators’ perspectives on the impact of Edcamp unconference professional learningTeaching and Teacher Education73, 56-69.

Good and Bad Studying by Barbara Oakley

These rules form a synthesis of some of the main ideas of the course–they are excerpted from the book A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel in Math and Science (Even if You Flunked Algebra), by Barbara Oakley, Penguin, July, 2014.

10 Rules of Good Studying

  1. Use recall. After you read a page, look away and recall the main ideas. Highlight very little, and never highlight anything you haven’t put in your mind first by recalling. Try recalling main ideas when you are walking to class or in a different room from where you originally learned it. An ability to recall—to generate the ideas from inside yourself—is one of the key indicators of good learning.
  2. Test yourself. On everything. All the time. Flash cards are your friend.
  3. Chunk your problems. Chunking is understanding and practicing with a problem solution so that it can all come to mind in a flash. After you solve a problem, rehearse it. Make sure you can solve it cold—every step. Pretend it’s a song and learn to play it over and over again in your mind, so the information combines into one smooth chunk you can pull up whenever you want.
  4. Space your repetition. Spread out your learning in any subject a little every day, just like an athlete. Your brain is like a muscle—it can handle only a limited amount of exercise on one subject at a time.
  5. Alternate different problem-solving techniques during your practice. Never practice too long at any one session using only one problem-solving technique—after a while, you are just mimicking what you did on the previous problem. Mix it up and work on different types of problems. This teaches you both how and when to use a technique. (Books generally are not set up this way, so you’ll need to do this on your own.) After every assignment and test, go over your errors, make sure you understand why you made them, and then rework your solutions. To study most effectively, handwrite (don’t type) a problem on one side of a flash card and the solution on the other. (Handwriting builds stronger neural structures in memory than typing.) You might also photograph the card if you want to load it into a study app on your smartphone. Quiz yourself randomly on different types of problems. Another way to do this is to randomly flip through your book, pick out a problem, and see whether you can solve it cold.
  6. Take breaks. It is common to be unable to solve problems or figure out concepts in math or science the first time you encounter them. This is why a little study every day is much better than a lot of studying all at once. When you get frustrated with a math or science problem, take a break so that another part of your mind can take over and work in the background.
  7. Use explanatory questioning and simple analogies. Whenever you are struggling with a concept, think to yourself, How can I explain this so that a ten-year-old could understand it? Using an analogy really helps, like saying that the flow of electricity is like the flow of water. Don’t just think your explanation—say it out loud or put it in writing. The additional effort of speaking and writing allows you to more deeply encode (that is, convert into neural memory structures) what you are learning.
  8. Focus. Turn off all interrupting beeps and alarms on your phone and computer, and then turn on a timer for twenty-five minutes. Focus intently for those twenty-five minutes and try to work as diligently as you can. After the timer goes off, give yourself a small, fun reward. A few of these sessions in a day can really move your studies forward. Try to set up times and places where studying—not glancing at your computer or phone—is just something you naturally do.
  9. Eat your frogs first. Do the hardest thing earliest in the day, when you are fresh.
  10. Make a mental contrast. Imagine where you’ve come from and contrast that with the dream of where your studies will take you. Post a picture or words in your workspace to remind you of your dream. Look at that when you find your motivation lagging. This work will pay off both for you and those you love!

10 Rules of Bad Studying

Excerpted from A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel in Math and Science (Even if You Flunked Algebra), by Barbara Oakley, Penguin, July, 2014

Avoid these techniques—they can waste your time even while they fool you into thinking you’re learning!

  1. Passive rereading—sitting passively and running your eyes back over a page. Unless you can prove that the material is moving into your brain by recalling the main ideas without looking at the page, rereading is a waste of time.
  2. Letting highlights overwhelm you. Highlighting your text can fool your mind into thinking you are putting something in your brain, when all you’re really doing is moving your hand. A little highlighting here and there is okay—sometimes it can be helpful in flagging important points. But if you are using highlighting as a memory tool, make sure that what you mark is also going into your brain.
  3. Merely glancing at a problem’s solution and thinking you know how to do it. This is one of the worst errors students make while studying. You need to be able to solve a problem step-by-step, without looking at the solution.
  4. Waiting until the last minute to study. Would you cram at the last minute if you were practicing for a track meet? Your brain is like a muscle—it can handle only a limited amount of exercise on one subject at a time.
  5. Repeatedly solving problems of the same type that you already know how to solve. If you just sit around solving similar problems during your practice, you’re not actually preparing for a test—it’s like preparing for a big basketball game by just practicing your dribbling.
  6. Letting study sessions with friends turn into chat sessions. Checking your problem solving with friends, and quizzing one another on what you know, can make learning more enjoyable, expose flaws in your thinking, and deepen your learning. But if your joint study sessions turn to fun before the work is done, you’re wasting your time and should find another study group.
  7. Neglecting to read the textbook before you start working problems. Would you dive into a pool before you knew how to swim? The textbook is your swimming instructor—it guides you toward the answers. You will flounder and waste your time if you don’t bother to read it. Before you begin to read, however, take a quick glance over the chapter or section to get a sense of what it’s about.
  8. Not checking with your instructors or classmates to clear up points of confusion. Professors are used to lost students coming in for guidance—it’s our job to help you. The students we worry about are the ones who don’t come in. Don’t be one of those students.
  9. Thinking you can learn deeply when you are being constantly distracted. Every tiny pull toward an instant message or conversation means you have less brain power to devote to learning. Every tug of interrupted attention pulls out tiny neural roots before they can grow.
  10. Not getting enough sleep. Your brain pieces together problem-solving techniques when you sleep, and it also practices and repeats whatever you put in mind before you go to sleep. Prolonged fatigue allows toxins to build up in the brain that disrupt the neural connections you need to think quickly and well. If you don’t get a good sleep before a test, NOTHING ELSE YOU HAVE DONE WILL MATTER.

Reference

Oakley, B. (2014) A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel in Math and Science (Even if You Flunked Algebra). Penguin. [Goodreads blurb]

Additional Learning Resources

Playlists: Multimedia Production Part 4

Create a Video Playlist

You may be uploading and creating your own video playlist, or collating a playlist of useful resources to suit a particular topic. Here are some resources to consider using. Please post in the comments section any other resources that are available.

  • Viewer playlists – organise your favourite videos and share. No creation of videos is required, you are just grouping together useful resources to share.
  • Creator playlists – if you create videos it provides a way to organise videos into topics and for viewers to find them.
  • Organised into subject content, theme or whatever you choose.
  • Videos are organised in a legal format for yourself and others to view.
  • Can embed into a website or resource.
  • Can provide analytics.

Example: Nursing Education Network Playlist

How To Make A YouTube Playlist

Why To Make a YouTube Playlist

Some Persuasive Data from YouTube Statistics:

  • YouTube has over a billion users — almost one-third of all people on the Internet — and every day people watch hundreds of millions of hours on YouTube and generate billions of views.
  • YouTube overall, and even YouTube on mobile alone, reaches more 18-34 and 18-49 year-olds than any cable network in the U.S.
  • Growth in watch time on YouTube has accelerated and is up at least 50% year over year for three straight years.

Data from YouTube Statistics

Other video player resources: Vimeo or Apple.

Teaching And Learning Through Video 

Multimedia Posts

Recording: Multimedia Production Part 3

Use you mobile phone, laptop or tablet for quality video recordings. Just check your device to see what video recording and editing software you already have. There are lots of options available for editing but as a beginner using your devices editing software or using YouTube may be the easier and less frustrating approach until you build up your recording skills.

Some considerations:

  • Lighting
  • Stability (use two hands or a selfie stick)
  • Audio and background noise
  • Point of view: where is the camera focused on
  • Framing: orientation of the camera
  • Clean your lens

Inclusivity

Don’t forget to add captions and subtitles [more info here].

Multimedia Posts

Storyboard: Multimedia Production Part 2

Storyboarding

 “A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence” (Wikipedia, 2019).

Example of a Storyboard

Storyboard for The Radio Adventures of Dr. Floyd

Storyboard Resources

ACMI. (2019). Storyboarding for the beginner.

ACMI. (2019). Storyboard Template.

Classic Disney Animation

Editing Resources

IT skills and budget are likely key factors in finding suitable editing resources. Here are a few, but a quick internet search will show many available resources. 

Inclusivity 

Don’t forget to review accessibility during the creation of resources for neurodiversity inclusiveness.

Multimedia Posts

 

 

Multimedia Production: Part 1

This is the first post in the journey for development in multimedia production. I have minimal experience in photography or video production and so this is also a personal learning project. Any useful resources will be shared to enable nurse educators to give it a try themselves (anyone with multimedia experience please add resources in the comments section below). A ‘traditional’ nurse educator approach will be used (i.e. no budget), so whatever resources we already have or can borrow will be used.

  1. First step will be the process of multimedia production.
  2. Step two will be the production side of things.
  3. Step three the equipment, likely using a mobile phone and any free developing apps and potentially a borrowed GoPro.
  4. Step 4 creating and collating playlists

Video 101: Shooting Basics from Vimeo Video School

Rule of Thirds

“The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally spaced horizontal lines and two equally spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections (Wikipedia, 2019).

Rivertree thirds md
Image by Moondigger [CC BY-SA 2.5] from Wikimedia Commons

The Applicability of Community of Inquiry Framework (Journal Club)

Journal Club Article: Smadi, O., Parker, S., Gillham, D., & Müller, A. (2019). The applicability of community of inquiry framework to online nursing education: A cross-sectional studyNurse education in practice34, 17-24.

Background

The lack of rigorous evidence based research to guide e-learning in higher education, which is especially relevant with the rapid adoption of e-learning, which is often part of a blended learning approach (Garrison, 2011).

“While discussion forums and video conferencing are very common in online courses, LMS also include a range of more interactive features and advanced functions such as customized learning pathways, collaborative content, peer interaction and assessment workshops, file sharing, real-time messaging, and wiki forums. However, according to Christie and Jurado (2009), these interactive features are not widely used by the course designers. Shea and Bidjerano (2009b) report that designers of online courses and educational providers are often confused about how to integrate new technologies into online learning environments in ways that will enrich student learning.”

The Community of Inquiry Framework

“The Community of Inquiry framework originated in the work of Dewey (1938), Peirce (1955), and Lipman (2003). Garrison et al. (2000) broadened and adapted the Community of Inquiry framework for e-learning education by viewing it through the lens of social, cognitive, and teaching presences.”

Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison et al., 2000):

  1. Social Presence
  2. Cognitive Presence
  3. Teaching Presence

Study Aim

The projects aims were to explore the following questions:

1. What is the awareness and knowledge of Australian nursing educators about the CoI framework?
2. What is the participants’ attitudes on the applicability of the CoI framework to online nurse education courses?

Study Design

An online survey tool which was divided into three sections:

  1. Demographic information,
  2. The applicability of community of inquiry presences,
  3. Awareness and knowledge of  Community of Inquiry.

Participants: Nurse educators from 34 higher education universities providing nurse education to international students.

Limitations: The survey tool was an adaptation of a validated tool. The limited response from using an online survey approach.

Results

From 138 respondents from a possible 1201 (response rate 11.5%):

    • The current used mode of teaching is blended learning (BL) (83%).
    • Nurse educators ranked BL as the best suited teaching mode for nursing education (90%).
    • Ninety percent (90%) of the participants are involved in curriculum design.
    • (90%) of the participants viewed instructional design and framework as significant to build an online course.
    • However, (70%) declared they don’t use explicit theoretical framework to guide the design/evaluation of online education.
    • Participants highly ranked the three core concepts of CoI framework as applicable for online nursing education.
  • (20%) of the participants are familiar with CoI framework, of them (79%) are likely to recommend CoI framework to a colleague.

Summary

“This study has shown the perceived importance of instructional design and theoretical framework to build an online courses for nurse educators using blended learning. Since Community of Inquiry framework has been shown to improve student satisfaction and decrease attrition in non-health disciplines, the implementation of Community of Inquiry framework in nurse education should be investigated more. Community of Inquiry provides a comprehensive framework relevant to face-to-face, blended, and online education with the potential to embed numerous technology-linked interventions within a Community of Inquiry framework.

These results provide the impetus for further investigation of factors influencing the development of online nurse education including the specific consideration of CoI frameworks.”

Keywords: Community of inquiry; Online education; Theoretical framework; Blended learning; E-learning

Reference

Smadi, O., Parker, S., Gillham, D., & Müller, A. (2019). The applicability of community of inquiry framework to online nursing education: A cross-sectional studyNurse education in practice34, 17-24.

Nursing Education Network Stats 2018

As part of open access and the #FOANed community, here is a summary of this blogs yearly stats (ending Dec 7, 2018). Thank you to everyone who follows and supports this site.  

Views by Countries (Top 12)

In this one year period there were visitors from 144 different countries.  

Views by Post (Top 12) 

Views & Visitors Monthly Data 2018



Warm wishes for a happy new year from Nursing Education Network. Posts will start again from 8th Jan, 2019.