Want Your Graduates to Succeed? Teach Them to Think!

Journal Club Article: Caputi, L. J., & Kavanagh, J. M. (2018). Want Your Graduates to Succeed? Teach Them to Think!. Nursing education perspectives39(1), 2-3. [abstract]

Thinkers and Knowledge Workers

This guest editorial discusses the importance and need for the preparation of new graduate nurses for the complex demands of professional practice they are about to enter. The challenge of the “explosion of knowledge, intensify the need to produce graduates able to succeed in the demanding world of healthcare as thinkers and knowledge workers.” 

The power to think in an age of information technology that brings information overload, add to this the increase in healthcare knowledge, research publications and curriculum content overload, the world the graduate nurse now enters is very different with each passing year and academia needs to deliver appropriate education.

Critical Thinking & Reasoning

The transition shock into practice from undergraduate to qualified nurse and the subsequent responsibilities are well known , with the subsequent impact on turnover rates for newly qualified nurses (Duchscher, 2009). Marry all this with increased inpatient acuity yet decreased length of hospital stay, and the healthcare system is a stressful and challenging work environment. Linking quality care delivery with the competency of the nurses is key, with critical thinking and reasoning, essential components of the preparation-practice gap.

Tanner’s Clinical Judgement Model

Academia must use a framework to teach clinical reasoning and clinical judgement such as Tanner’s (2006) 4 Step Approach to Clinical Reasoning:

  1. Noticing
  2. Interpreting
  3. Responding
  4. Reflecting

Summary

“The key to new-graduate success and improving patient outcomes might well lie in the way we teach students to think – something to think about.”

KeywordsCritical thinking; Knowledge worker; Reflection; Take the time; Motivation; Think, Think.

 

References

Caputi, L. J., & Kavanagh, J. M. (2018). Want Your Graduates to Succeed? Teach Them to Think!. Nursing education perspectives39(1), 2-3. [abstract]

Duchscher, J. E. B. (2009). Transition shock: the initial stage of role adaptation for newly graduated registered nursesJournal of advanced nursing65(5), 1103-1113.

Tanner, C. A. (2006). Thinking like a nurse: A research-based model of clinical judgment in nursingJournal of nursing education45(6).

Outliers: The Story of Success (Book Club)  

Book Club: Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The Story of Success. Hachette UK. [sample here]

It’s More Than Just Talent

Outliers are “people who are invariably the beneficiaries of hidden advantages and extraordinary opportunities and cultural legacies that allow them to learn and work hard and make sense of the world in ways others cannot” (Gladwell, 2008).

Contributors To Success

    • Practice makes perfect- the 10,000 hours practice rule (Deliberate Practice).
    • The importance of cut off points in the calendar year in sport and schooling, related to age, development and subsequent opportunities.
    • Opportunity: the right time and place, what is happening to the wider world at the time of the person’s key development stages.
    • The impact of legacy.
    • Examples provided of the success stories of Bill Joy, Bill Gates & The Beatles.
    • IQ is not enough. The Terman IQ study of the gifted demonstrates that intelligence does not equal success (Terman, 1959).

Malcolm Gladwell Explains

 

References

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success. Hachette UK. [sample here]

Kaufman, S. (2009). The Truth about the Termites. Psychology Today.

Nursing Education Network. (2017). Deliberate Practice: Practice like you play.

Terman, L. (1959). The Gifted Group at Mid-Life: Thirty-five Years Follow-up of the Superior ChildStanford University Press.

Wikipedia (2017) Outliers.

An Integrative Literature Review of Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators

Journal Club Article: Breytenbach, C., ten Ham-Baloyi, W., & Jordan, P. J. (2017). An Integrative Literature Review of Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators. Nursing Education Perspectives38(4), 193-197. [abstract]

Keywords: Evidence-Based Teaching; integrative review; teaching; nurse educator.

Background

Evidence-based teaching strategies in nursing education are fundamental to promote an in-depth understanding of information. The teaching strategies of nurse educators should be based on sound evidence or best practice.

Method

Integrative literature review of sixteen studies.

Findings

Eight teaching strategies were identified:

  1. E-learning
  2. Concept mapping
  3. Internet-based learning (IBL)
  4. Web-based learning
  5. Gaming
  6. Problem-based learning (PBL)
  7. Case studies
  8. Evidence-based learning (EBL)

The following three strategies of concept mapping, IBL and EBL provided the highest level increase in knowledge.

Conclusion

All teaching strategies enhanced the learning experience, but more research is needed. A multi-modal approach to teaching and delivering content is required to suit the content, situation and learner.

Reference

Breytenbach, C., ten Ham-Baloyi, W., & Jordan, P. J. (2017). An Integrative Literature Review of Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators. Nursing Education Perspectives38(4), 193-197. [abstract]

Journals For The Nurse Educator To Follow

Keeping up to date with the latest clinical nursing and healthcare developments is a challenging process, then throw in additional education focused literature and your into information overload territory.  To keep relevant and aware of current healthcare educational focused research, here are some resources that may help (no conflict of interest to report). As ever please add any suggestions of other resources you know about in the comments section at the bottom of this post and I will update the below resource list.

Journals To Follow: 

To organise your favourite journals or browse collections to keep up with the latest research:

A few predatory journals also exist out there in publishing land so beware.

The Chimp Paradox: Book Club

Book: Peters, S. (2013). The Chimp Paradox: The Mind Management Program to Help You Achieve Success, Confidence, and Happiness. Tarcher.

Optimising the Performance of the Human Mind: Steve Peters at TEDxYouth

References

Chimp Management (2017) The Chimp Model.

Fotheringham, A. (2012). Dr Steve Peters: From chimps to champs.

Peters, S. (2013). The Chimp Paradox: The Mind Management Program to Help You Achieve Success, Confidence, and Happiness. Tarcher.

Wikipedia (2017) Steve Peters (psychiatrist).

Variatio Est Mater Studiorum (Journal Club)

Journal Club Article: Marton, F., & Trigwell, K. (2000). Variatio est mater studiorum. Higher Education Research & Development19(3), 381-395. [abstract]

“There is no learning without discernment.  And there is no discernment without variation.”

  • Rote learning and the difference between variation and repetition. Memorising is not consistent with understanding.
  • Transfer allows the individual to move out of context, community or situation and use past learning from another situation and relate this between the two situations.
  • Motor learning and variability of practice is required.
  • Error free learning does not yield learning.
  • The space of learning provides the conditions learning takes place.
  • Participation and the concept of learning communities.

Keywords: Variation theory, phenomenography; transfer; experiential; participation; learning communities.

References 

Marton, F., & Trigwell, K. (2000). Variatio est mater studiorum. Higher Education Research & Development19(3), 381-395. [abstract]

Nursing Education Network (2017) Sameness and difference in transfer.

Educational Research: The Qualitative Path

Book Club: Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. [Link to 4th edition]

As I transitioned between the worlds of healthcare and higher education, I noted the differences in approaches and considerations to the hierarchies of research and evidence base. In healthcare the RCT is the respected way forward, but in education I was learning to ‘look through the lens’ and value qualitative research. Now I am aware that in nursing, a strong body of qualitative literature exists, but in the world of critical care it’s fair to say that quantitative methods rule. In educational research, John Hattie has utilised the ‘big data’ approach and created some of the first meta-analysis data and findings to guide theory and curriculum in education.

As I critiqued the articles for my academic projects, my biases and preconceptions around qualitative research, no doubt impacted on any critical analysis formed. However, the theoretical frameworks and paradigms led me to a new world of epistemelogical, ethnography, action research, phenomenology, grounded theory, mixed methods and the narrative. I found educational articles are sometimes long and extremely ‘wordy’, and took many twists and turns before getting to the main points. But I grew to appreciate the narrative studies, where the researcher embeds themselves in the lives of the subjects and their everyday lives are brought out in the stories being told. The Hawthorne effect and one person’s biases, are two quick critiques of such an approach but the art of storytelling can provide so much more for the reader than a table of statistics.

Some appreciations of educational qualitative research:

  • The search for “The Truth” by Roller (2013)
  • Engaging in the environment
  • Collecting the data in qualitative research
  • Theoretical frameworks and paradigms
  • Process in identifying key themes
  • Ethical issues within qualitative research
  • The qualitative versus quantitative debate

The same steps of the quantitative research process occur in the qualitative approach, where the identification of a need or a problem occurs, this then provides the road map for the research journey. The justification and how then the project will be of benefit still needs to be explained in the research methodology.

Here are a small sample of the education focused articles that were part of my formal studies:

Just recently this discussion on Twitter around a journal now only accepting quantitative articles for submission. Some fields of healthcare research are really only suitable for the qualitative methodology and not to be classified as a p value.

 

References

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (pp. 146-166). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. [Link to 4th edition]

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge [sample].

Ismail, S. (2009). Popular pedagogy and the changing political landscape: a case study of a women’s housing movement in South AfricaStudies in Continuing Education31(3), 281-295.

Kalman, J. (2000). Learning to write in the streetInternational Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education13(3), 187-203.

Larsson, S. (2009). A pluralist view of generalization in qualitative researchInternational journal of research & method in education32(1), 25-38.

Roller, M. (2013) Distinctive qualities of qualitative research. Research Design Review.