Create a Constructivist Online Learning Environment

Constructivist Learning Environments

Bloom taxonomy

In a constructivist learning environment, the educator needs to allow the learner to develop and learn, ideally allowing progression suited to the individual. The content will have to be incorporated into lesson plans and intended learning outcomes to scaffold learning. Integrating varied theoretical approaches to assist and encourage learning is key. The facilitator will need to be comfortable and confident in providing an environment that encourages active learning. If the educator is confident enough then a heutogogy based learning environment could be created, especially in an online learning approach.

Constructivist Online Course

  • E-learning would be planned to deliver a step by step program of the course topics.
  • At the interface level for the student, developing an engaging learning community to share ideas and create discussion.
  • To create an experimental environment, an online community would require rules of engagement, such as privacy and respect.
  • A positive and safe environment to encourage learning and seek challenges. Mistakes are welcome.
  • To build an experience, then encourage active engagement through discussion forums and online posting. The facilitator will need to know when to contribute or step back during discussions to allow open discussion.
  • Online lectures or recordings must have the ability for discussion and question to make collaboration possible.
  • Low stakes quizzes and tasks to create skills based assessment at certain stages through the course. Relate to real life situation, such as a workplace scenario to encourage active engagement and problem solving skills. Not all questions to have yes/no answers, allow multiple options to create different perspectives and rationales.
  • Create new ideas and receive feedback from learners.
  • Provide tips and advice of how to learn and study.
  • Use of reflective practice to encourage self-management and own learning development on a journey of lifelong learning,
  • Teach to learn, not just aiming to pass the test or the final numbers.

Nursing Constructivist Framework

Using Benner (1984) “novice to expert” or Bondy (1983) “dependent to independent”  frameworks to create the learning environment can help align content to nursing experience or skills expected to be learnt and assessed.

IT Platform

With so many learning management platforms available I will leave it up to Wikipedia’s explanation on learning management system. Some aspects to consider are the accessibility (is the information so important that really warrants a password?), the interface with mobile devices and the connectivity with social media and other platforms we use in our connected lives. Maybe consider the website model of open access and Wikipedia, Wikischools or Wikiversity.


Benner, P. (1982). From novice to expert. American Journal of Nursing, 82(3), 402-407.

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert. Menlo Park.

Bondy, K, N. (1983). Criterion-referenced definitions for rating scales in clinical evaluation. Journal of Nursing Education. Vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 376-382.

Huang, H. M. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 27-37.

Koohang, A., Riley, L., Smith, T., & Schreurs, J. (2009). E-learning and constructivism: From theory to application. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects

The University of Sydney (2016) Constructivism

Wikipedia (2016) Learning Management System


Pomodoro Technique: Study Skills

Il pomodoroPomodoro Technique: “The Pomodoro Technique® is a time-management method developed by Francesco Cirillo in the 1980s. The technique uses a timer (originally a tomato-shaped kitchen timer) to break work into 25-minute intervals of focused work, each interval followed by a short break” (Oakley & Sejnowski, 2016).

Pomodoro: ‘Pomodoro’ is Italian for tomato.

Study Time Aim: To ensure a carefully timed, focused session of study or work is utilised. Time is precious for both study and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Try to plan and block out focused pomodoro time:

  • 2 x Pomodoro’s (Total 60 mins for 2 x 25 mins pomodoro with 2 x 5 min break).
  • 4 x  Pomodoro’s (Total 120 mins for 4 x 25 mins pomodoro with 4 x 5 mins breaks).

Why Pomodoro?

  1. Work with time – not against it.
  2. Eliminate burnout.
  3. Manage distractions.
  4. Create a better work/life balance.

From The Pomodoro Technique (2016).

To Do’s Implementing Pomodoro:

  1. How much effort/time does the activity/learning require?
  2. Protect your pomodoro time. Remove all distractions like mobile phones, social media, tablets, children, pets, friends, family. In other words block out the world.
  3. Calculate the number of pomodoro’s into this time frame.
  4. Recap- work – review process to study.
  5. Set a ‘to do’ with timelines – ensure free time is incorporated for well-being.
  6. Set your personal objectives you want to achieve (the motivation part).

From The Pomodoro Technique (2016).

Avoid Procrastination: “Procrastination is putting off or delaying of a task which you should be giving immediate attention. Procrastination usually involves doing more pleasurable things (e.g. checking social media) in place of less pleasurable ones (e.g. homework), or carrying out less urgent tasks instead of more urgent ones” (Oakley & Sejnowski, 2016).


The Pomodoro Technique (2016) What is the Pomodoro Technique?

Oakley, B. & Sejnowski, T. (2016) Learning How to Learn: Powerful mental tools to help you master tough subjects. Coursera.



Heutagogy: The Third Gogy

What is Heutagogy?

So we have pedagogy (learning in children) and andragogy (learning in adults). The third gogy is heutagogy (Greek for ‘self‘) which is self-determined learning and places the emphasis of learning on the learner, moving away from the traditional teacher/lecturer role as the focal point. Defined by Hase and Kenyon (2000) as “the study of self-determined learning”, where in an ever-changing world of work, study and life where information is readily accessible and learning aligns with this accessibility.

Heutagogy is perfect for the online world, where the access to so many resources and personal learning networks exist (such as social media). Heutagogy is considered a ‘net-centric’ theory.

Aim of Heutagogy?

  • The development of the learner’s capability and capacity to learn.
  • Prepare learners for the complexities of today’s workplace.
  • Self-directed learning.
  • Self-determined learning.
  • Learner centric.
  • Motivated learners.


For the educator, an approach to creating education delivery will require a learner-centred design philosophy. Allowing the students to explore and find new learning paths is vital. For those educators who like control, this may well be very challenging to have such an open path of educational exploration. In a world of readily available information, the educator is no longer the sole proprietor of subject matter expertise. Regular discussion should allow updates on progress, understanding and if any guidance is required from the educator. A collaborative learning approach can be incorporated into the learning process to encourage teamwork. Consider introducing a learning contract to outline and agree the end expectations in such an open and trusting environment.

Double-Loop Learning

A key concept in heutagogy is that of double-loop learning and self-reflection (Argyris & Schön, 1996, as cited in Hase & Kenyon, 2000). In double-loop learning, learners consider the problem and the resulting action and outcomes, in addition to reflecting upon the problem-solving process and how it influences the learner’s own beliefs and actions. Double-loop learning occurs when learners “question and test one’s personal values and assumptions as being central to enhancing learning how to learn” (Argyris & Schön, 1978, as cited in Hase, 2009, pp. 45-46)”.

Something to consider, in schooling the Montesorri method of allowing the individual to develop and discover has been around since the early 1900’s.

Keywords: Heutagogy; lifelong learning; self-determined learning; self-directed learning; double-loop learning.


Anderson, T. (2010). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.) Emerging technologies in distance education. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press.

Blaschke, L. M. (2012) Heutagogy and Lifelong Learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. Athabasca University.

Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2001). Moving from andragogy to heutagogy: implications for VET. Graduate College of Management Papers, 142.

Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From andragogy to heutagogy. Ultibase Articles, 5(3), 1-10.

Wikipedia (2016) Heutagogy

Phenomenographic & Variation Theory

Phenomenographic & Variation Theory

The phenomenological perspective is based around understanding the experiences of others, for example a teacher gaining an understanding of the student’s perspective of a particular lesson. Basing this approach around the individual’s perspective, continual evolvement occurs in the different learning experiences we participate in (Marton, 1981). The same educational content could be delivered to a group of individuals which results in different meanings and interpretations to each individual.

Marton and Trigwell (2000) explored this variation in learning situations and what can be achieved with different learning strategies, stating “variation is the mother of learning’. Martin & Booth (1997) highlight the individual concepts of different ways of seeing or experiencing, conceptualising, perceiving and understanding phenomena in the world. For understanding education, one needs to see the impacts on variation and learning. It is worth focusing directly on the learner, “The real distinction of phenomenology is the focus on the student/learner approach to learning, classified as deep, surface or strategic” (Marton, Hounsell, and Entwistle, 1984).

This individualistic, interpretist experience of the learner also utilises a process called transfer (Marton, 2006). According to Marton (2006), transfer utilises previous experience and recognising differences from past and current learning situations, this develops the idea of sameness in terms of learning, but also emphasises this cannot occur without recognising differences at the same time. “And when it comes to preparing students for an unknown future, the nature of variation is of decisive importance” (Marton and Trigwell, 2000, p. 394).

Thorndike’s stimulus-response associations in learning explains this transfer of the learning process from one situation to another, even in completely different topics (Knowles et al, 2011). The process then starts again in this new situation but the transfer is from the learners past context and experiences (Marton, 2006). In phenomenography the learner may determine what is learned, rather than the traditional teacher determined learning outcomes (Biggs and Tang, 2007). Marton & Trigwell (2000) “position the student as the agent of learning”.

“By using phenomenography one can identify how key concepts are understood by the learner, while variation theory can assist in identifying the aspects that need to be varied for the students to gain a deep, and complete understanding, thus improving learning outcomes.” (Stamouli and Huggard, 2007).

Keywords: transfer; individualistic; phenomenology; Marton; agent of learning.


Marton, F. (1981). Phenomenography—Describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science, 10, 177-220.

Marton, F. (2000). The structure of awareness. In J. Bowden & E. Walsh (Eds.), Phenomenography (pp. 102-116). Melbourne: RMIT University Press.

Marton, F. (2006). Sameness and Difference in Transfer. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(4), 499-535. doi: 10.1207/s15327809jls1504_3

Marton, F., Hounsell, D., & Entwistle, N. J. (1984). The experience of learning. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Marton, F., & Trigwell, K. (2000). Variatio Est Mater Studiorum. Higher Education Research & Development, 19(3), 381-395. doi: 10.1080/07294360020021455

Stamouli, I. & Huggard, M. (2007) Phenomenography as a tool for understanding our students. Trinity College Dublin.

Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning (Book Club)

Book Club: Brown, P. C., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Make It Stick. Harvard University Press. [Goodreads blurb]

The Authors 

  • The Storyteller: Brown, P. C.
  • The Cognitive Scientists: Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A.

Aim: To identify and understand how learning and memory work.

“People generally are going about learning in the wrong ways”

“Learning Is Misunderstood”

Distinction in learning between ‘memorizing’ and ‘thinking’. But a sturdy foundation of knowledge is needed before the ability of imagination and creativity and higher order skills can be undertaken. Think of rote learning as part of the foundation learning. Many common study habits and practice routines turn out to be counterproductive.

Importance of retrieval practice and the use of regular testing to test knowledge. This retrieval needs to require effort for stronger learning. Low stakes testing and providing quizzes are helpful tools the teacher can provide.

Practice at retrieving new knowledge or skill from memory is a potent tool for learning and durable retention.” (pg. 43).

The importance of providing effective feedback which strengthens learning and retention more than testing alone. So feedback is an important aspect in this learning process. Also to provide delayed feedback rather than immediate feedback is a more successful approach.

Mix it up, interleave your study. Different topics and different levels of knowledge. Varying learning or training and the interleaving allows better discrimination skills.

“Interleaving two or more subjects during practice also provides a form of spacing” (pg. 65).

Increasing knowledge and understanding. In nursing education we would focus on the problem solving skills, selecting a solution from a range of possibilities. The nursing educator would likely deem these as the critical thinking skills we try to embed in nurse training. Here the authors describe it as the ‘mastery’ of a subject.

They highlight in medicine the need to train in the environment the doctor will be assessed. So if they are to be assessed completing a physical examination, they can’t just read about it. Practice on a real patient needs to occur for improved performance.

Practice like you play and you will play like you practice” (pg 57-58).

The need for repeated exposure to whatever content is being delivered, otherwise it just adds to forgotten pile of information.

Embrace difficulties by:

  • Encoding- creating mental models.
  • Consolidation- organise and solidify learning.
  • Retrieval- mental rehearsal and ensuring short-term memory is hooked into long-term memory to enable retrieval to occur.

Go beyond learning styles aptitudes by using prior knowledge, intelligence, interests and developing a sense of personal empowerment. Use active learning strategies to effectively learn. Calibrating your understanding by testing and retrieval practice (try low stakes quizzes). Increase your abilities with neuroplasticity and the cognitive strategies for getting more out of your brain.

The Takeaway

  • Take charge of your learning.
  • Practice retrieval.
  • Interleave the study.
  • Importance of varying practice and make it challenging.

This book also highlights the art of storytelling. The main discussion is related to clinical (the storytelling part) to enable the reader to relate to a real situation or even their own experience. Each chapter has ‘the takeaway’ message part to focus the important discussion items (the big-ticket items).

Key words: cognitive; interleave; neuroplasticity; storytelling.

Relevant posts:


Brown, P. C., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Make It Stick. Harvard University Press. [Goodreads blurb]

Review of Make it stick. by Lang, J. M. (2014) The Chronicle of Higher Education

Oakley, B. & Sejnowski, T. (2016) Learning How to Learn: Powerful mental tools to help you master tough subjects. Coursera

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development

Zone of proximal developmentVygotsky’s “Zone of proximal development” describes how the learner moves cognitively from potential to actual development (a constructivism theory).

  • What the learner cannot do.
  • What the leaner can do with guidance.
  • What the learner can do.

This type of learning can only be facilitated through guidance and support (Moll, 2013). “Vygotsky’s social constructivism is an “outside in” approach as compared to Piaget’s “inside out” theory” Marti (2013, p. 58). To learn, scaffolding is required to build on the theoretical and skill development.

The zone of proximal development is defined as:

“the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86).

Vygotsky’s theory advanced the cognitive educational domain from the cognizing individual to that of interaction and social learning development (Tryphon & Vonèche, 2013). The zone of proximal development theorises the state at which the learner moves from potential to actual development, and the importance of the social interactions to progress the learner. This cognitive development processes from a stage of ‘what is not known, to what is known’. The learners are encouraged to demonstrate the capabilities of social aspects of learning (Moll, 2013).

For the nurse educator, the need to determine level of knowledge and understanding is fundamental. Maybe the nurse specialises in certain areas and is currently learning new skills or knowledge, they may well move between expert and novice so an array of strategies to support should be initiated. Constructive feedback strategies will be required for ongoing development, especially for the ‘what is not known’ aspects.

Keywords: cognitive; Vygotsky; constructivist; proximal development; scaffolding.


Vygotsky, L. (1987). Zone of proximal development. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes, 5291.

Marti, E. (2013) Mechanisms of internalisation of knowledge in Piaget’s and Vygotky’s theories. In Tryphon, A., & Vonèche, J. (pp. 57-84). Piaget Vygotsky: The Social Genesis Of Thought. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Moll, L. C. (2013). LS Vygotsky and education. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Tryphon, A., Vonèche, J., & Library, E. B. L. e. (2013). Piaget Vygotsky: The Social Genesis Of Thought. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Wikipedia (2016) Zone of Proximal Devlopment

Piaget:Constructivism & Cognitivist Perspective

Constructivism & Cognitivist Perspective

Considered one of the most prominent and prolific constructivists, Jean Piaget developed the theory of cognitive development around the premise that thoughts, memory, past experience, problem solving and processing information all influence the learner (Doolittle and Hicks, 2012).  Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development changed the education paradigm from a traditional passive and transference process into one that the individual constructs knowledge and becomes an active learner (Brown and Desforges, 2007).

Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development are:

  • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
  • Pre-operational stage (2 to 7 years)
  • Concrete operational stage (7 to 12 years)
  • Formal operational stage (12 years onward)

Ideas, thoughts and knowledge development that exist in memory according to Piaget are termed schema. The concept of schema theory involves the organised structure of memories, past experience and the knowledge we possess and develop over time (Winn and Snyder, 1996). This constant interpretation and adaption is according to Piaget, the process of adaption and assimilation to the environment. Adaption are the skills to develop cognitively to progress and continually learn, progress and remain challenged. Accommodation is when the new knowledge or the existing schema do not work, the requirement of a different perspective or even changes need to occur for ongoing learning opportunities and development. Assimilation is using new experiences to already existing schema, knowledge and experiences.

To succinctly summarise cognitive perspective learning theory, “learners learn how to learn” (Biggs and Tang, 2007). The cognitive approach requires active participation and educational approaches to encourage interaction to realise potential (Killen, 2012). This educational approach generates meaning from the interactions in learning and the view of one’s self and internal organisation of knowledge. The structured learning environment means the teacher becomes a facilitator of learning rather than the provider of information (Killen, 2012).

Central to this cognitive representation and subsequent theories from Piaget’s extensive research is the focus of the development and education of children, rather than adults. One element of conjecture with Piaget is the four stages take the learner from birth (sensorimotor stage) to childhood (formal operational stage), but lacks the relevancy for the adult learner (McLeod, 2009).


Biggs, J., & Tang, Catherine. (2011). Teaching For Quality Learning At University (4th ed.). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education. [sample here]

Brown, G., & Desforges, C. (2007). Piaget’s Theory: A psychological critique. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Doolittle, P. E., & Hicks, D. (2003). Constructivism as a theoretical foundation for the use of technology in social studies. Theory & Research in Social Education, 31(1), 72-104.

Killen, R. (2012). Effective teaching strategies: Lessons from research and practice. Melbourne: Cengage Learning Australia.

McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from

Rungapadiachy, D. M. (1999) Interpersonal communication and psychology for health care professionals. Theory and practice. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Winn, W., & Snyder, D. (1996). Cognitive perspectives in psychology. Handbook of research for educational communications and technology: A project of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 79-112.



Focus the mind: To wee or not to wee?

To wee or not to wee, that is the question.

Need to make an important decision or focus more clearly on a task? The question we are trying to answer in this post is whether you should take a planned wee before or hold on till after a task, and which is better to focus the mind.

To Wee

Lewis, M. S., Snyder, P. J., Pietrzak, R. H., Darby, D., Feldman, R. A., & Maruff, P. (2011). The effect of acute increase in urge to void on cognitive function in healthy adults. Neurourology and urodynamics, 30(1), 183-187.

“found that having an extreme urge to void had a negative effect on attention and working memory functions. The impact on cognitive function was equivalent to low levels of alcohol intoxication or fatigue, and thus, could increase the risk of accidents in occupational settings. These cognitive functions returned to normal almost immediately after voiding.”

Or Not To Wee

Tuk, M. A., Trampe, D., & Warlop, L. (2011). Inhibitory spillover increased urination urgency facilitates impulse control in unrelated domainsPsychological Science, 22(5), 627-633.

Looked at the inhibitory visceral factor—urination urgency—on impulsive behavior. Do visceral factors associated with inhibition deteriorate impulse control? Or might bladder pressure provide a condition under which people’s ability to control impulses, and hence their ability to act in their own long-term best interest, improves?

“A physiological form of control — bladder control — can also facilitate behavioral control.”

Suggest that holding it in actually facilitates our ability to control our impulses and make the best decisions in whatever situation we find ourselves. What the researchers found was that the stronger people’s urge to pee, the better they were at controlling their impulses.

Sign in Canada

In Summary

The Ig Nobel Medicine Prize (2011) was awarded jointly to both studies for demonstrating that people make better decisions about some kinds of things — but worse decisions about other kinds of things‚ when they have a strong urge to urinate.

So probably best just to wee to prevent any accidents!

The Ig Nobel Prizes honor achievements that make people laugh, and then think.


Lewis, M. S., Snyder, P. J., Pietrzak, R. H., Darby, D., Feldman, R. A., & Maruff, P. (2011). The effect of acute increase in urge to void on cognitive function in healthy adults. Neurourology and urodynamics, 30(1), 183-187.

Tuk, M. A., Trampe, D., & Warlop, L. (2011). Inhibitory spillover increased urination urgency facilitates impulse control in unrelated domainsPsychological Science, 22(5), 627-633.


Folk Schools: Adult Education

Background & History

Folk schools offer a variety of subjects and their common theme is the delivery of educational programs where the learner focuses on their own interests, abilities and personal growth. True learning occurs as the learners engage in subjects that really interest and motivate them. The aim of folk school is to challenge the whole person.

The concept of Folk school originally came from the Danish writer, poet, philosopher and pastor N. F. S. Grundtvig (1783–1872).

“One of the main concepts still to be found at the folk high schools today is lifelong learning. The schools should educate for life. They should shed light on basic questions surrounding life of people both as individuals and as members of society. To Grundtvig the ideal was to give the students a sense of a common best and focusing on life as it really is. Therefore, Grundtvig never set down guidelines for the future schools or a detailed description of how they should be run. He declared that the folk high schools should be arranged and developed according to life as it is and the schools should not hold exams because the education and enlightenment was a sufficient reward” (Wikipedia, 2016).

What is a Folk School?

Educational Aims

The Folk School Alliance (2016) brief history on Folk Schools explain that: “Steven Borish, a Grundtvig scholar, proposes four lessons that folk schools have to offer:

  1.  Real education begins with the communication of a sense of personal mission and purpose, and the belief that everyone has the ability to acquire the skills and knowledge to accomplish that mission.
  2. The principle of folkelighed, offers an alternative to nationalism. It is a form of patriotism that values culture and identity while emphasizing that other nations and cultures are equally as valued.
  3. Education should be for all aspects of life and lifelong.
  4. The movement that gave rise to folk schools was local, decentralized, and grassroots.”

Location of Folk Schools

  • Scandinavia (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden)
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Austria
  • USA

Traits of Folk Schools

  • for adults.
  • free.
  • no exams, marks or grades.
  • variety of subjects to choose.
  • face to face.
  • boarding school concept: a community.
  • personal growth.
  • teaching: same level dialogue.
  • students bring their experience.
  • non-formal education approach.

1800’s Theory: Relevancy In Today’s World?

  • Fits in with lifelong learning.
  • Fits in with personal learning networks
  • Fits in with Wenger’s (social learning theory)
  • “Schools for Life” theory by Grundtvig.
  • Free: cost effective approach to education for learners.


Borish, S. (1991). Land of the living: Danish folk high schools and Denmark’s nonviolent path to modernization. Nevada City, CA: Blue Dolphin.

Smith, M. K. (1996). ‘The development of folk high schools’, the encyclopaedia of informal education.

The Folk School Alliance (2016) A Brief History of Folk Schools.

Wikipedia (2016) Folk High School.

The Networked Student

The networked learner model provides students with a way to create a personal learning environment where meaningful learning occurs with knowledge construction. “Knowledge based on experiences and social interactions”(Drexler, 2010).

Principles of networked learning are around connectivism and constructivism. Social learning theory is also part of this approach as an array of resources are sourced from personal learning environments.

Development Aims of Networked Learning (Drexler, 2010):

  1. Contacts.
  2. Synchronous communication.
  3. Information management.
  4. Social networks.

Due to technology, the connectivity aspect is now embedded in our study, work and personal lives thanks to internet access on mobile phones, tablets and laptops. This allows learning to be mobile, agile and provide constant learning opportunities. Learners can also be creators and collaborators of learning, not just consumers.

Learning Aims:

  • Promotes inquiry-based learning.
  • Promotes digital literacy.
  • Empowers the learner.
  • Build professional connections to support practice.
  • Build a purpose of independent inquiry.
  • Flexibility as new technologies emerge.

How to Deliver (Educator Perspective): An educator can scaffold a networked learning approach to allow students to take more control of the learning process. The teacher could provide details of reliable and quality sources of information available to students.

The educator can decide on the types of resources students are to use. Remember to always consider, “what are the students using in their everyday lives”, if they use them then you really need to justify using closed off and password protected applications, as the learning network will become very restricted to a single institution. Emerging web applications and open educational resources are integrated to support a “Networked Student Model”. Why not engage yourself in the technology and source the good resources out and become a guide? You will find instead of creating resources, you will spend more time sourcing information in the mass of information on the web.

Networked Student

Keywords: networked learning; MOOC; personal learning network; web 2.0; connectivism; scaffolding.


Drexler, W. (2010) The networked student model for construction of personal learning environments: Balancing teacher control and student autonomyAustralasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(3), 369-385.

Wikipedia. (2016) Networked Learning.

Nursing Education Network. (2016) The Networked Teacher.