What Is Interprofessional Learning?
Interprofessional practice education (IPE) has been defined by the Centre for Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE) as two or more professions “learning with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and quality of care” (Barr, 2002).
In order to improve outcomes across healthcare through collaboration there is the need to “learn with, from, and about each other” (World Health Organization, 2010).
WHO (2010) framework for interprofessional education and collaborative practice key messages are:
- “Interprofessional education occurs when students from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes.
- Interprofessional education is a necessary step in preparing a collaborative practice-ready health workforce that is better prepared to respond to local health needs.
- Collaborative practice happens when multiple health workers from different professional backgrounds work together with patients, families, carers and communities to deliver the highest quality of care” (pg 7).
Nursing, medical, allied health (physical therapist, pharmacy, social work, speech and language) and this is within the hospital environment, the next level is how to then collaborate between the hospital with community services.
IPE occurs formally and informally, from a clinical practice view, we have likely experienced the debrief of a clinical incident within the workplace (Nisbet et al. 2007).
One of the main questions from an educational perspective will be to consider what IPE learning should focus on (O’Keefe, Henderson & Chick, 2017). Is it the procedural (technical skills) or soft skills (non-technical skills) that are key learning? There will be the need for education faculty to be trained in delivering IPE (Watkins, 2016).
There is an identified need in healthcare for experiential learning opportunities, set in the clinical environment and not just in the simulation laboratory or higher education settings, (Shrader et al, 2018). Difficulties of delivering IPE in the higher education, such as logistics of collaboration around busy schedules, resources, accreditation and varied assessments (O’Keefe, Henderson, & Chick, 2017). To deliver within the clinical environment these factors need to be considered to ensure effective training focuses on improving consumer outcomes, collaboration and evidence based practice.
- Professional silo’s, not to breakdown but connect.
- Understanding each professions roles and responsibilities.
- Scope of practice.
- Difficulties of delivering IPE in higher education.
- Traditional workplace hierarchy of top down approach, the collaborative IPE challenges these values and beliefs in order to change culture.
- Interprofessional feedback process across different professions and skill mix. Skilled and structured feedback is required to maintain trust and enquiry in a safe environment.
- Resources to deliver quality simulation, both technical and non-technical skill training.
- Learning from mistakes and shared learning in the no-blame culture of healthcare.
Essential Components For IPE
Steven et al. (2017) identified these essential components from IPE education programs:
- Knowledge for practice,
- Skills for practice,
- Ethical approach,
- Continuing professional development (CPD),
- Patient-centered approach,
- Teamwork skills.
The recognition for collaborative practice and improved consumer outcomes through dedicated IPE programs delivered by specific IPE faculty (Bridges et al, 2011).
There will be a need for interprofessional competencies as IPE in the education and the workplace occurs, and how these fit into specific regulatory requirements will have to be considered (Englander et al, 2013).
Ausmed (2018). Position Statement: Interprofessional Continuing Education.
Ausmed (2018). Meeting the Challenges of Interprofessional Collaboration.
Barr, H. (2002). Interprofessional Education: Today, Yesterday and Tomorrow. CAIPE and LTSN Centre for Health Science and Practice.
Bridges, D., Davidson, R. A., Soule Odegard, P., Maki, I. V., & Tomkowiak, J. (2011). Interprofessional collaboration: three best practice models of interprofessional education.
Englander, R., Cameron, T., Ballard, A. J., Dodge, J., Bull, J., & Aschenbrener, C. A. (2013). Toward a common taxonomy of competency domains for the health professions and competencies for physicians. Academic Medicine, 88(8), 1088-1094.
Hunt, S. (2007). Participatory community practice: Developing interprofessional skills. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal, 8(3), 71.
O’Keefe, M., Henderson, A., & Chick, R. (2017). Defining a set of common interprofessional learning competencies for health profession students. Medical teacher, 39(5), 463-468.
Nisbet, G., Thistlethwaite, J., Moran, M., Chesters, J., Jones, M., Murphy, K., & Playford, D. (2007). Sharing a vision for collaborative practice: the formation of an Australasian interprofessional practice and education network (AIPPEN). Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-disciplinary Journal, 8(3), 1.
Shrader, S., Jernigan, S., Nazir, N., & Zaudke, J. (2018). Determining the impact of an interprofessional learning in practice model on learners and patients. Journal of interprofessional care, 1-8.
Steven, K., Howden, S., Mires, G., Rowe, I., Lafferty, N., Arnold, A., & Strath, A. (2017). Toward interprofessional learning and education: Mapping common outcomes for prequalifying healthcare professional programs in the United Kingdom. Medical teacher, 39(7), 720-744.
Watkins, K. D. (2016) ‘Faculty development to support interprofessional education in healthcare professions: A realist synthesis’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 30(6), pp.
World Health Organization. 2010. Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice. WHO Press.