Journal Club Article: Azer, S. A., Guerrero, A. P., & Walsh, A. (2013). Enhancing learning approaches: Practical tips for students and teachers. Medical Teacher, 35(6), 433-443.
Background: To deliver an integrated curriculum such as problem-based learning (PBL), students need to develop a number of learning skills and competencies. These cannot be achieved through memorization of factual knowledge but rather through the development of a wide range of cognitive and noncognitive skills that enhance deep learning rather than superficial learning.
Aim: Provide students and teachers with learning approaches and learning strategies that enhance deep learning.
Methods: literature review around the theories of learning.
Identified 3 themes and 12 tips to apply into day-to-day learning and teaching activities:
Theme 1: Apply specific techniques that foster deep learning
- Learn how to ask good questions,
- Use analogy,
- Construct mechanisms and concept maps,
- Join a peer-tutoring group,
- Develop critical thinking skills,
- Use self-reflection,
Theme 2: Master active learning
- Use appropriate range of learning resources,
- Ask for feedback,
Theme 3: Practice learning beyond the classroom
- Apply knowledge learnt to new problems,
- practice learning by using simulation,
- Learn by doing and service learning,
- Learn from patients.
Nursing Education Network. (2019). 12 Tips for Applying the Science of Learning to Health Professions Education.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.
Mayer, R. E. (2008). Applying the science of learning: Evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. American Psychologist, 63(8), 760.
Young, J. Q., Van Merrienboer, J., Durning, S., & Ten Cate, O. (2014). Cognitive load theory: Implications for medical education: AMEE guide no. 86. Medical teacher, 36(5), 371-384.