Kirkpatrick Model of Evaluation

Learning and Development

Level 1: Reaction

Gain insight into the learners reactions and attitudes to the training by analysis of the feedback. Consider what changes could be made following review of the responses. Some ideas for questions:

  • How engaged was the learner
  • Was the training valuable to your learning?
  • 3 most important things learned?
  • Was the training successful?
  • What were the biggest strengths and weaknesses of the training?
  • Were the training engaging?
  • Was the training worth your time?

Level 2: Learning

The important stuff, what was or wasn’t learned? So measure against the specific learning objectives that were outlined in the program.

  • Testing pre and post program
  • Measures what learners may able to do differently as a result of the training
  • New skills, knowledge, attitudes
  • Measure confidence levels, skills, attitudes and knowledge

Level 3: Behaviour

The aim is to understand how people apply their training.

  • What changes occured post training?
  • How was the training knowledge and skills applied?
  • Are there any behaviours changes?
  • Are trainees able to teach their new knowledge, skills or attitudes to other people?

With results in an organisation workplace the aim would be to encourage, reinforce and reward positive changes in behavior.

Level 4: Results

  • What are final results of your training?
  • Conduct analysis of the outcomes.
  • Was the program a success?
  • A positive return on the investment in the program?

Cautionary Point: This model was first designed in 1959, although has been updated.

See our post on Kirkpatrick 10 Requirements for an Effective Training Program.

Update from social media discussion following this post was a resource shared called Learning Transfer Evaluation Model (LTEM) by Work-Learning Research, which “is an improvement over the Kirkpatrick-Katzell Four-Level Model in many respects, notably providing significant improvement and specificity in regards to learning outcomes. Where the Four-Level model crammed all learning into one bucket, LTEM differentiates between knowledge, decision-making, and task competence—enabling learning teams to target more meaningful learning outcomes.”


Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2009). Implementing the four levels: A practical guide for effective evaluation of training programs. [excerpt].

Kirkpatrick Partners. (2019). The Kirkpatrick Model.

Kurt, S. (2016). “Kirkpatrick Model: Four Levels of Learning Evaluation,” in Educational Technology.