Effective Feedback Process

Journal Club Article: Hardavella, G., Aamli-Gaagnat, A., Saad, N., Rousalova, I., & Sreter, K. B. (2017). How to give and receive feedback effectively. Breathe13(4), 327-333.

Feedback Types

  • informal
  • formal
  • formative
  • summative

Feedback Importance

“it seems that learners value feedback more when it is given by someone they respect as a role model. Appropriate feedback contributes significantly in developing learners’ competence and confidence at all stages of their professional careers; it helps them think about the gap between actual and desired performance, and identify ways to narrow the gap and improve (pg 327-328).

Who Gives Feedback?

Feedback is meant to be a reciprocal process.

  • Education or clinical supervisors
  • Patients
  • Peers & colleagues
  • Trainees

Feedback Barriers

Table 1 (pg 329):

  • Generalised feedback not related to specific facts
  • Lack of advice on how to improve behaviour
  • A lack of respect for the source of feedback
  • Fear of upsetting colleagues
  • Fear of damaging professional relationships
  • Defensive behaviour/resistance when receiving feedback
  • Physical barriers: noise, or improper time, place or space
  • Personal agendas
  • Lack of confidence

Tips for Receiving feedback

Table 4 (pg 332):

  • Be a good listener
  • When in doubt, ask for clarification
  • Embrace the feedback session as a learning opportunity
  • Remember to pause and think before responding
  • Avoid jumping to conclusions, and show that you are invested in the learning process and keen to improve
  • Think positively and be open to helpful hints Learn from your mistakes and be motivated
  • Be a good sport and show appreciation
  • Be proactive

Feedback Approach: on pages 238-239, the dreaded “feedback sandwich” and Pendletons feedback are discussed. I would argue both are now outdated approaches to feedback and to use ‘Learning Conversion‘ or the ‘advocacy-enquiry‘ approach from the simulation field.

Supervision Resources

Nursing Education Network. (2019). Clinical Supervision in Nursing

Nursing Education Network. (2020). Basic Model of Supervision.

Nursing Education Network. (2018). Supervision Skills in Nursing