Educational Instructional Design – ADDIE Approach

ADDIE is an instructional systems design framework used by instructional designers and training developers to provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective education, training and performance programs.

The five phases:

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

An additional approach to improve this model is the use of rapid prototyping, where receiving continual or formative feedback while instructional materials are being created to develop the program and remove problematic aspects.

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development (+ rapid prototyping)
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Analysis Phase

Needs analysis to ask: What is the education or instructional problem? What are the objectives? What is the current state of the learning environment and learner’s existing knowledge and skills?

  • Who are the learners and what are their characteristics?
  • What is the desired new behaviour?
  • What types of learning constraints exist?
  • What are the delivery options?
  • What adult learning theory considerations apply?
  • What is the timeline for project completion?

Design Phase

Create a design proposal or concept that is systematic and specific with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning, and media selection to aid final development. How will the education program look, feel and be delivered to the learners?

Development Phase

Creation and assembly of content assets described in the design phase, with consideration on how technlogy is intergrated. Pilot testing and rapid prototyping can be carried out by involving key stakeholders to aid development of the instructional design and performance.

Implementation Phase

The education program is ready to be delivered. Consideraton for training and preparing facilitators to cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation for learners includes training on any educational technology. Implementation includes evaluation of the design.

Evaluation Phase

Did the program deliver what was intended for facilitators and learners and were results expected? A useful evaluation tool is the Kirkpatrick Model of Evaluation approach.


Nursing Education Network. (2016). Human Centred Design.

Nursing Education Network. (2019). Kirkpatrick Model of Evaluation.