The science of andragogy is understanding and supporting lifelong learning in adult learners and developing the teaching of adult learners (Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2011). This discussion on the main conditions around contemporary learning utilising a phenomenological theoretical framework environment is aimed to improve learning and the philosophy of knowledge.
A student centred educationally developed course, with the environment developed from the instructor having walked in the student’s shoes. “Instructors must then not only ask “What is learned?” and “What is transferred?”, but also “What should be learned?” and “What should be transferred?” (Marton, 2006).
Background on Phenomenographic & Variation Theory.
Phenomenography/Variation Online Course (E-Learning)
- Variation would be the nature of the course to provide adaptability and agility of the course and the student (#interleaving)
- Creating scenarios based on variances and differences to engage, investigate and change perspectives.
- Advancing technology, use of an array of online resources to explore phenomena. Web based, gamification, point of view could all be included as part of this development.
- Engage in scholarly discourse, to critique and discuss content to encourage a wide range of views and perspectives. Increases oral and listening skills also as an ongoing life skill.
- Two way discussion for developing enquiry and negotiation skills.
- As part of the exploration, look at both sides (pro’s and con’s, for and against, good and bad) to develop knowledge.
- Encourage students to think outside the box.
- Error free learning environment.
- Facilitator must engage closely with students to ensure students understand the variations, diversity and phenomena.
- E-portfolio for reflective practice and really understand their personal feelings, process and developmental journey.
Student skills development, especially focusing on experience, ability to critique and question and notice differences in the variations. A personal growth from the transfer of the learning and discern meaning out of the learning experience. Phenomenon based learning is to equip students with the skills to flourish in the 21st century technology driven era.
Keywords: transfer; phenomenology; Marton; agent of learning; e-learning; phenomenon based learning; PBL.
Knowles, M. S., Holton III, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2011). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development.
Marton, F. (2006). Sameness and Difference in Transfer. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(4), 499-535. doi: 10.1207/s15327809jls1504_3